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Changes in version 0.4.2.5 - 2019-12-09
  This is the first stable release in the 0.4.2.x series. This series
  improves reliability and stability, and includes several stability and
  correctness improvements for onion services. It also fixes many smaller
  bugs present in previous series.

  Per our support policy, we will support the 0.4.2.x series for nine
  months, or until three months after the release of a stable 0.4.3.x:
  whichever is longer. If you need longer-term support, please stick
  with 0.3.5.x, which will we plan to support until Feb 2022.

  Per our support policy, we will support the 0.4.2.x series for nine
  months, or until three months after the release of a stable 0.4.3.x:
  whichever is longer. If you need longer-term support, please stick
  with 0.3.5.x, which will we plan to support until Feb 2022.

  Below are the changes since 0.4.1.4-rc. For a complete list of changes
  since 0.4.1.5, see the ReleaseNotes file.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 3 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32685.

  o Testing:
    - Require C99 standards-conforming code in Travis CI, but allow GNU
      gcc extensions. Also activates clang's -Wtypedef-redefinition
      warnings. Build some jobs with -std=gnu99, and some jobs without.
      Closes ticket 32500.


Changes in version 0.4.1.7 - 2019-12-09
  This release backports several bugfixes to improve stability and
  correctness.  Anyone experiencing build problems or crashes with 0.4.1.6,
  including all relays relying on AccountingMax, should upgrade.

  o Major features (directory authorities, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Directory authorities now reject relays running all currently
      deprecated release series. The currently supported release series
      are: 0.2.9, 0.3.5, 0.4.0, 0.4.1, and 0.4.2. Closes ticket 31549.

  o Major bugfixes (embedded Tor, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid a possible crash when restarting Tor in embedded mode and
      enabling a different set of publish/subscribe messages. Fixes bug
      31898; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (relay, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Relays now respect their AccountingMax bandwidth again. When
      relays entered "soft" hibernation (which typically starts when
      we've hit 90% of our AccountingMax), we had stopped checking
      whether we should enter hard hibernation. Soft hibernation refuses
      new connections and new circuits, but the existing circuits can
      continue, meaning that relays could have exceeded their configured
      AccountingMax. Fixes bug 32108; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (torrc parsing, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Stop ignoring torrc options after an %include directive, when the
      included directory ends with a file that does not contain any
      config options (but does contain comments or whitespace). Fixes
      bug 31408; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (v3 onion services, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Onion services now always use the exact number of intro points
      configured with the HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints option (or
      fewer if nodes are excluded). Before, a service could sometimes
      pick more intro points than configured. Fixes bug 31548; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - When building on Appveyor and Travis, pass the "-k" flag to make,
      so that we are informed of all compilation failures, not just the
      first one or two. Closes ticket 31372.

  o Minor features (geoip, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 3 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32685.

  o Minor bugfixes (Appveyor CI, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid spurious errors when Appveyor CI fails before the install step.
      Fixes bug 31884; bugfix on 0.3.4.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (client, onion service v3, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - Fix a BUG() assertion that occurs within a very small race window
      between when a client intro circuit opens and when its descriptor
      gets cleaned up from the cache. The circuit is now closed early,
      which will trigger a re-fetch of the descriptor and continue the
      connection. Fixes bug 28970; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (connections, backport from 0.4.2.3-rc):
    - Avoid trying to read data from closed connections, which can cause
      needless loops in Libevent and infinite loops in Shadow. Fixes bug
      30344; bugfix on 0.1.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (error handling, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - On abort, try harder to flush the output buffers of log messages.
      On some platforms (macOS), log messages could be discarded when
      the process terminates. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Report the tor version whenever an assertion fails. Previously, we
      only reported the Tor version on some crashes, and some non-fatal
      assertions. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - When tor aborts due to an error, close log file descriptors before
      aborting. Closing the logs makes some OSes flush log file buffers,
      rather than deleting buffered log lines. Fixes bug 31594; bugfix
      on 0.2.5.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Add a missing check for HAVE_PTHREAD_H, because the backtrace code
      uses mutexes. Fixes bug 31614; bugfix on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Disable backtrace signal handlers when shutting down tor. Fixes
      bug 31614; bugfix on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Rate-limit our the logging message about the obsolete .exit
      notation. Previously, there was no limit on this warning, which
      could potentially be triggered many times by a hostile website.
      Fixes bug 31466; bugfix on 0.2.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, protocol violations, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Do not log a nonfatal assertion failure when receiving a VERSIONS
      cell on a connection using the obsolete v1 link protocol. Log a
      protocol_warn instead. Fixes bug 31107; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (mainloop, periodic events, in-process API, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Reset the periodic events' "enabled" flag when Tor is shut down
      cleanly. Previously, this flag was left on, which caused periodic
      events not to be re-enabled when Tor was relaunched in-process
      with tor_api.h after a shutdown. Fixes bug 32058; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (multithreading, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid some undefined behaviour when freeing mutexes. Fixes bug
      31736; bugfix on 0.0.7.

  o Minor bugfixes (process management, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Remove overly strict assertions that triggered when a pluggable
      transport failed to launch. Fixes bug 31091; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
    - Remove an assertion in the Unix process backend. This assertion
      would trigger when we failed to find the executable for a child
      process. Fixes bug 31810; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (relay, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid crashing when starting with a corrupt keys directory where
      the old ntor key and the new ntor key are identical. Fixes bug
      30916; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - When testing port rebinding, don't busy-wait for tor to log.
      Instead, actually sleep for a short time before polling again.
      Also improve the formatting of control commands and log messages.
      Fixes bug 31837; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (tests, SunOS, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid a map_anon_nofork test failure due to a signed/unsigned
      integer comparison. Fixes bug 31897; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (tls, logging, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Log bugs about the TLS read buffer's length only once, rather than
      filling the logs with similar warnings. Fixes bug 31939; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.4-rc.

  o Documentation (backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Explain why we can't destroy the backtrace buffer mutex. Explain
      why we don't need to destroy the log mutex. Closes ticket 31736.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Disable all but one Travis CI macOS build, to mitigate slow
      scheduling of Travis macOS jobs. Closes ticket 32177.
    - Run the chutney IPv6 networks as part of Travis CI. Closes
      ticket 30860.
    - Simplify the Travis CI build matrix, and optimise for build time.
      Closes ticket 31859.
    - Use Windows Server 2019 instead of Windows Server 2016 in our
      Appveyor builds. Closes ticket 32086.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - In Travis, use Xcode 11.2 on macOS 10.14. Closes ticket 32241.
    - Use Ubuntu Bionic images for our Travis CI builds, so we can get a
      recent version of coccinelle. But leave chutney on Ubuntu Trusty,
      until we can fix some Bionic permissions issues (see ticket
      32240). Related to ticket 31919.
    - Install the mingw OpenSSL package in Appveyor. This makes sure
      that the OpenSSL headers and libraries match in Tor's Appveyor
      builds. (This bug was triggered by an Appveyor image update.)
      Fixes bug 32449; bugfix on 0.3.5.6-rc.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Require C99 standards-conforming code in Travis CI, but allow GNU gcc
      extensions. Also activates clang's -Wtypedef-redefinition warnings.
      Build some jobs with -std=gnu99, and some jobs without.
      Closes ticket 32500.


Changes in version 0.4.0.6 - 2019-12-09
  This is the second stable release in the 0.4.0.x series. This release
  backports several bugfixes to improve stability and correctness.  Anyone
  experiencing build problems or crashes with 0.4.0.5, including all relays
  relying on AccountingMax, should upgrade.

  Note that, per our support policy, support for the 0.4.0.x series will end
  on 2 Feb 2020.  Anyone still running 0.4.0.x should plan to upgrade to the
  latest stable release, or downgrade to 0.3.5.x, which will get long-term
  support until 1 Feb 2022.

  o Directory authority changes (backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - The directory authority "dizum" has a new IP address. Closes
      ticket 31406.

  o Major bugfixes (bridges, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Consider our directory information to have changed when our list
      of bridges changes. Previously, Tor would not re-compute the
      status of its directory information when bridges changed, and
      therefore would not realize that it was no longer able to build
      circuits. Fixes part of bug 29875.
    - Do not count previously configured working bridges towards our
      total of working bridges. Previously, when Tor's list of bridges
      changed, it would think that the old bridges were still usable,
      and delay fetching router descriptors for the new ones. Fixes part
      of bug 29875; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (circuit build, guard, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - When considering upgrading circuits from "waiting for guard" to
      "open", always ignore circuits that are marked for close. Otherwise,
      we can end up in the situation where a subsystem is notified that
      a closing circuit has just opened, leading to undesirable
      behavior. Fixes bug 30871; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (Onion service reachability, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Properly clean up the introduction point map when circuits change
      purpose from onion service circuits to pathbias, measurement, or
      other circuit types. This should fix some service-side instances
      of introduction point failure. Fixes bug 29034; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (onion service v3, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Fix an unreachable bug in which an introduction point could try to
      send an INTRODUCE_ACK with a status code that Trunnel would refuse
      to encode, leading the relay to assert(). We've consolidated the
      ABI values into Trunnel now. Fixes bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
    - Clients can now handle unknown status codes from INTRODUCE_ACK
      cells. (The NACK behavior will stay the same.) This will allow us
      to extend status codes in the future without breaking the normal
      client behavior. Fixes another part of bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (relay, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Relays now respect their AccountingMax bandwidth again. When
      relays entered "soft" hibernation (which typically starts when
      we've hit 90% of our AccountingMax), we had stopped checking
      whether we should enter hard hibernation. Soft hibernation refuses
      new connections and new circuits, but the existing circuits can
      continue, meaning that relays could have exceeded their configured
      AccountingMax. Fixes bug 32108; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (torrc parsing, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Stop ignoring torrc options after an %include directive, when the
      included directory ends with a file that does not contain any
      config options (but does contain comments or whitespace). Fixes
      bug 31408; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (v3 onion services, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Onion services now always use the exact number of intro points
      configured with the HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints option (or
      fewer if nodes are excluded). Before, a service could sometimes
      pick more intro points than configured. Fixes bug 31548; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (compile-time modules, backport from version 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Add a "--list-modules" command to print a list of which compile-
      time modules are enabled. Closes ticket 30452.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Remove sudo configuration lines from .travis.yml as they are no
      longer needed with current Travis build environment. Resolves
      issue 30213.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Our Travis configuration now uses Chutney to run some network
      integration tests automatically. Closes ticket 29280.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - When building on Appveyor and Travis, pass the "-k" flag to make,
      so that we are informed of all compilation failures, not just the
      first one or two. Closes ticket 31372.

  o Minor features (fallback directory list, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Replace the 157 fallbacks originally introduced in Tor 0.3.5.6-rc
      in December 2018 (of which ~122 were still functional), with a
      list of 148 fallbacks (70 new, 78 existing, 79 removed) generated
      in June 2019. Closes ticket 28795.

  o Minor features (geoip, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 3 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32685.

  o Minor features (stem tests, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change "make test-stem" so it only runs the stem tests that use
      tor. This change makes test-stem faster and more reliable. Closes
      ticket 31554.

  o Minor bugfixes (Appveyor CI, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid spurious errors when Appveyor CI fails before the install step.
      Fixes bug 31884; bugfix on 0.3.4.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (build system, backport form 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Do not include the deprecated <sys/sysctl.h> on Linux or Windows
      systems. Fixes bug 31673; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit isolation, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Fix a logic error that prevented the SessionGroup sub-option from
      being accepted. Fixes bug 22619; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit padding, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - On relays, properly check that a padding machine is absent before
      logging a warning about it being absent. Fixes bug 30649; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (client, onion service v3, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - Fix a BUG() assertion that occurs within a very small race window
      between when a client intro circuit opens and when its descriptor
      gets cleaned up from the cache. The circuit is now closed early,
      which will trigger a re-fetch of the descriptor and continue the
      connection. Fixes bug 28970; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (clock skew detection, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Don't believe clock skew results from NETINFO cells that appear to
      arrive before we sent the VERSIONS cells they are responding to.
      Previously, we would accept them up to 3 minutes "in the past".
      Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation warning, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Fix a compilation warning on Windows about casting a function
      pointer for GetTickCount64(). Fixes bug 31374; bugfix
      on 0.2.9.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Avoid using labs() on time_t, which can cause compilation warnings
      on 64-bit Windows builds. Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Suppress spurious float-conversion warnings from GCC when calling
      floating-point classifier functions on FreeBSD. Fixes part of bug
      31687; bugfix on 0.3.1.5-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, unusual configurations, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid failures when building with the ALL_BUGS_ARE_FATAL option
      due to missing declarations of abort(), and prevent other such
      failures in the future. Fixes bug 30189; bugfix on 0.3.4.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration, proxies, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Fix a bug that prevented us from supporting SOCKS5 proxies that
      want authentication along with configured (but unused!)
      ClientTransportPlugins. Fixes bug 29670; bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (connections, backport from 0.4.2.3-rc):
    - Avoid trying to read data from closed connections, which can cause
      needless loops in Libevent and infinite loops in Shadow. Fixes bug
      30344; bugfix on 0.1.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Allow the test-stem job to fail in Travis, because it sometimes
      hangs. Fixes bug 30744; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind on macOS in Travis, because it is unreliable on
      macOS on Travis. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind when the TOR_SKIP_TEST_REBIND environment
      variable is set. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (crash on exit, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Avoid a set of possible code paths that could try to use freed
      memory in routerlist_free() while Tor was exiting. Fixes bug
      31003; bugfix on 0.1.2.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authorities, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Stop crashing after parsing an unknown descriptor purpose
      annotation. We think this bug can only be triggered by modifying a
      local file. Fixes bug 30781; bugfix on 0.2.0.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authority, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Move the "bandwidth-file-headers" line in directory authority
      votes so that it conforms to dir-spec.txt. Fixes bug 30316; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (error handling, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - On abort, try harder to flush the output buffers of log messages.
      On some platforms (macOS), log messages could be discarded when
      the process terminates. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Report the tor version whenever an assertion fails. Previously, we
      only reported the Tor version on some crashes, and some non-fatal
      assertions. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (FreeBSD, PF-based proxy, IPv6, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When extracting an IPv6 address from a PF-based proxy, verify that
      we are actually configured to receive an IPv6 address, and log an
      internal error if not. Fixes part of bug 31687; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (guards, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When tor is missing descriptors for some primary entry guards,
      make the log message less alarming. It's normal for descriptors to
      expire, as long as tor fetches new ones soon after. Fixes bug
      31657; bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Do not log a warning when running with an OpenSSL version other
      than the one Tor was compiled with, if the two versions should be
      compatible. Previously, we would warn whenever the version was
      different. Fixes bug 30190; bugfix on 0.2.4.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change log level of message "Hash of session info was not as
      expected" to LOG_PROTOCOL_WARN. Fixes bug 12399; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.10-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Rate-limit our the logging message about the obsolete .exit
      notation. Previously, there was no limit on this warning, which
      could potentially be triggered many times by a hostile website.
      Fixes bug 31466; bugfix on 0.2.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, protocol violations, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Do not log a nonfatal assertion failure when receiving a VERSIONS
      cell on a connection using the obsolete v1 link protocol. Log a
      protocol_warn instead. Fixes bug 31107; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (mainloop, periodic events, in-process API, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Reset the periodic events' "enabled" flag when Tor is shut down
      cleanly. Previously, this flag was left on, which caused periodic
      events not to be re-enabled when Tor was relaunched in-process
      with tor_api.h after a shutdown. Fixes bug 32058; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory leak, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid a minor memory leak that could occur on relays when failing
      to create a "keys" directory. Fixes bug 30148; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory leak, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Fix a trivial memory leak when parsing an invalid value
      from a download schedule in the configuration. Fixes bug
      30894; bugfix on 0.3.4.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (NetBSD, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Fix usage of minherit() on NetBSD and other platforms that define
      MAP_INHERIT_{ZERO,NONE} instead of INHERIT_{ZERO,NONE}. Fixes bug
      30614; bugfix on 0.4.0.2-alpha. Patch from Taylor Campbell.

  o Minor bugfixes (onion services, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid a GCC 9.1.1 warning (and possible crash depending on libc
      implemenation) when failing to load an onion service client
      authorization file. Fixes bug 30475; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (out-of-memory handler, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - When purging the DNS cache because of an out-of-memory condition,
      try purging just the older entries at first. Previously, we would
      always purge the whole thing. Fixes bug 29617; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (portability, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Avoid crashing in our tor_vasprintf() implementation on systems
      that define neither vasprintf() nor _vscprintf(). (This bug has
      been here long enough that we question whether people are running
      Tor on such systems, but we're applying the fix out of caution.)
      Fixes bug 30561; bugfix on 0.2.8.2-alpha. Found and fixed by
      Tobias Stoeckmann.

  o Minor bugfixes (process management, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Remove overly strict assertions that triggered when a pluggable
      transport failed to launch. Fixes bug 31091; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
    - Remove an assertion in the Unix process backend. This assertion
      would trigger when we failed to find the executable for a child
      process. Fixes bug 31810; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (relay, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid crashing when starting with a corrupt keys directory where
      the old ntor key and the new ntor key are identical. Fixes bug
      30916; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (rust, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Correctly exclude a redundant rust build job in Travis. Fixes bug
      31463; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - When testing port rebinding, don't busy-wait for tor to log.
      Instead, actually sleep for a short time before polling again.
      Also improve the formatting of control commands and log messages.
      Fixes bug 31837; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (tls, logging, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Log bugs about the TLS read buffer's length only once, rather than
      filling the logs with similar warnings. Fixes bug 31939; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.4-rc.

  o Minor bugfixes (v2 single onion services, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Always retry v2 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v2 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rendezvous circuits were retried after a remote or
      delayed failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug
      23818; bugfix on 0.2.9.3-alpha.
    - Make v3 single onion services fall back to a 3-hop intro, when all
      intro points are unreachable via a 1-hop path. Previously, v3
      single onion services failed when all intro nodes were unreachable
      via a 1-hop path. Fixes bug 23507; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Documentation (backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Use RFC 2397 data URL scheme to embed an image into tor-exit-
      notice.html so that operators no longer have to host it
      themselves. Closes ticket 31089.

  o Testing (backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Specify torrc paths (with empty files) when launching tor in
      integration tests; refrain from reading user and system torrcs.
      Resolves issue 29702.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - In Travis, show stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30234.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - In Travis, make stem log a controller trace to the console, and
      tail stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30591.
    - In Travis, only run the stem tests that use a tor binary. Closes
      ticket 30694.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Disable all but one Travis CI macOS build, to mitigate slow
      scheduling of Travis macOS jobs. Closes ticket 32177.
    - Run the chutney IPv6 networks as part of Travis CI. Closes
      ticket 30860.
    - Simplify the Travis CI build matrix, and optimise for build time.
      Closes ticket 31859.
    - Use Windows Server 2019 instead of Windows Server 2016 in our
      Appveyor builds. Closes ticket 32086.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - Use Ubuntu Bionic images for our Travis CI builds, so we can get a
      recent version of coccinelle. But leave chutney on Ubuntu Trusty,
      until we can fix some Bionic permissions issues (see ticket
      32240). Related to ticket 31919.
    - Install the mingw OpenSSL package in Appveyor. This makes sure
      that the OpenSSL headers and libraries match in Tor's Appveyor
      builds. (This bug was triggered by an Appveyor image update.)
      Fixes bug 32449; bugfix on 0.3.5.6-rc.
    - In Travis, use Xcode 11.2 on macOS 10.14. Closes ticket 32241.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Require C99 standards-conforming code in Travis CI, but allow GNU gcc
      extensions. Also activates clang's -Wtypedef-redefinition warnings.
      Build some jobs with -std=gnu99, and some jobs without.
      Closes ticket 32500.

Changes in version 0.3.5.9 - 2019-12-09
  Tor 0.3.5.9 backports serveral fixes from later releases, including
  several that affect bridge users, relay stability, onion services,
  and much more.

  o Directory authority changes (backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - The directory authority "dizum" has a new IP address. Closes
      ticket 31406.

  o Major bugfixes (bridges, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Consider our directory information to have changed when our list
      of bridges changes. Previously, Tor would not re-compute the
      status of its directory information when bridges changed, and
      therefore would not realize that it was no longer able to build
      circuits. Fixes part of bug 29875.
    - Do not count previously configured working bridges towards our
      total of working bridges. Previously, when Tor's list of bridges
      changed, it would think that the old bridges were still usable,
      and delay fetching router descriptors for the new ones. Fixes part
      of bug 29875; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (circuit build, guard, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - When considering upgrading circuits from "waiting for guard" to
      "open", always ignore circuits that are marked for close. Otherwise,
      we can end up in the situation where a subsystem is notified that
      a closing circuit has just opened, leading to undesirable
      behavior. Fixes bug 30871; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (NSS, relay, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - When running with NSS, disable TLS 1.2 ciphersuites that use
      SHA384 for their PRF. Due to an NSS bug, the TLS key exporters for
      these ciphersuites don't work -- which caused relays to fail to
      handshake with one another when these ciphersuites were enabled.
      Fixes bug 29241; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (Onion service reachability, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Properly clean up the introduction point map when circuits change
      purpose from onion service circuits to pathbias, measurement, or
      other circuit types. This should fix some service-side instances
      of introduction point failure. Fixes bug 29034; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (onion service v3, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Fix an unreachable bug in which an introduction point could try to
      send an INTRODUCE_ACK with a status code that Trunnel would refuse
      to encode, leading the relay to assert(). We've consolidated the
      ABI values into Trunnel now. Fixes bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
    - Clients can now handle unknown status codes from INTRODUCE_ACK
      cells. (The NACK behavior will stay the same.) This will allow us
      to extend status codes in the future without breaking the normal
      client behavior. Fixes another part of bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (torrc parsing, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Stop ignoring torrc options after an %include directive, when the
      included directory ends with a file that does not contain any
      config options (but does contain comments or whitespace). Fixes
      bug 31408; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (v3 onion services, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Onion services now always use the exact number of intro points
      configured with the HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints option (or
      fewer if nodes are excluded). Before, a service could sometimes
      pick more intro points than configured. Fixes bug 31548; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (address selection, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Treat the subnet 100.64.0.0/10 as public for some purposes;
      private for others. This subnet is the RFC 6598 (Carrier Grade
      NAT) IP range, and is deployed by many ISPs as an alternative to
      RFC 1918 that does not break existing internal networks. Tor now
      blocks SOCKS and control ports on these addresses and warns users
      if client ports or ExtORPorts are listening on a RFC 6598 address.
      Closes ticket 28525. Patch by Neel Chauhan.

  o Minor features (bandwidth authority, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Make bandwidth authorities ignore relays that are reported in the
      bandwidth file with the flag "vote=0". This change allows us to
      report unmeasured relays for diagnostic reasons without including
      their bandwidth in the bandwidth authorities' vote. Closes
      ticket 29806.

  o Minor features (compile-time modules, backport from version 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Add a "--list-modules" command to print a list of which compile-
      time modules are enabled. Closes ticket 30452.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - On Travis Rust builds, cleanup Rust registry and refrain from
      caching the "target/" directory to speed up builds. Resolves
      issue 29962.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.0.5):
    - In Travis, tell timelimit to use stem's backtrace signals, and
      launch python directly from timelimit, so python receives the
      signals from timelimit, rather than make. Closes ticket 30117.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Remove sudo configuration lines from .travis.yml as they are no
      longer needed with current Travis build environment. Resolves
      issue 30213.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Our Travis configuration now uses Chutney to run some network
      integration tests automatically. Closes ticket 29280.

  o Minor features (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - When building on Appveyor and Travis, pass the "-k" flag to make,
      so that we are informed of all compilation failures, not just the
      first one or two. Closes ticket 31372.

  o Minor features (fallback directory list, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Replace the 157 fallbacks originally introduced in Tor 0.3.5.6-rc
      in December 2018 (of which ~122 were still functional), with a
      list of 148 fallbacks (70 new, 78 existing, 79 removed) generated
      in June 2019. Closes ticket 28795.

  o Minor features (geoip, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 3 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32685.

  o Minor features (NSS, diagnostic, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Try to log an error from NSS (if there is any) and a more useful
      description of our situation if we are using NSS and a call to
      SSL_ExportKeyingMaterial() fails. Diagnostic for ticket 29241.

  o Minor features (stem tests, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change "make test-stem" so it only runs the stem tests that use
      tor. This change makes test-stem faster and more reliable. Closes
      ticket 31554.

  o Minor bugfixes (security, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Verify in more places that we are not about to create a buffer
      with more than INT_MAX bytes, to avoid possible OOB access in the
      event of bugs. Fixes bug 30041; bugfix on 0.2.0.16. Found and
      fixed by Tobias Stoeckmann.
    - Fix a potential double free bug when reading huge bandwidth files.
      The issue is not exploitable in the current Tor network because
      the vulnerable code is only reached when directory authorities
      read bandwidth files, but bandwidth files come from a trusted
      source (usually the authorities themselves). Furthermore, the
      issue is only exploitable in rare (non-POSIX) 32-bit architectures,
      which are not used by any of the current authorities. Fixes bug
      30040; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha. Bug found and fixed by
      Tobias Stoeckmann.

  o Minor bugfix (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Reset coverage state on disk after Travis CI has finished. This
      should prevent future coverage merge errors from causing the test
      suite for the "process" subsystem to fail. The process subsystem
      was introduced in 0.4.0.1-alpha. Fixes bug 29036; bugfix
      on 0.2.9.15.
    - Terminate test-stem if it takes more than 9.5 minutes to run.
      (Travis terminates the job after 10 minutes of no output.)
      Diagnostic for 29437. Fixes bug 30011; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (Appveyor CI, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid spurious errors when Appveyor CI fails before the install step.
      Fixes bug 31884; bugfix on 0.3.4.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (build system, backport form 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Do not include the deprecated <sys/sysctl.h> on Linux or Windows
      systems. Fixes bug 31673; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (C correctness, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Fix an unlikely memory leak in consensus_diff_apply(). Fixes bug
      29824; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha. This is Coverity warning
      CID 1444119.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit isolation, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Fix a logic error that prevented the SessionGroup sub-option from
      being accepted. Fixes bug 22619; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (client, onion service v3, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - Fix a BUG() assertion that occurs within a very small race window
      between when a client intro circuit opens and when its descriptor
      gets cleaned up from the cache. The circuit is now closed early,
      which will trigger a re-fetch of the descriptor and continue the
      connection. Fixes bug 28970; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (clock skew detection, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Don't believe clock skew results from NETINFO cells that appear to
      arrive before we sent the VERSIONS cells they are responding to.
      Previously, we would accept them up to 3 minutes "in the past".
      Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation warning, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Fix a compilation warning on Windows about casting a function
      pointer for GetTickCount64(). Fixes bug 31374; bugfix
      on 0.2.9.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.0.2-alpha):
    - Silence a compiler warning in test-memwipe.c on OpenBSD. Fixes bug
      29145; bugfix on 0.2.9.3-alpha. Patch from Kris Katterjohn.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - Avoid using labs() on time_t, which can cause compilation warnings
      on 64-bit Windows builds. Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Suppress spurious float-conversion warnings from GCC when calling
      floating-point classifier functions on FreeBSD. Fixes part of bug
      31687; bugfix on 0.3.1.5-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, unusual configurations, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid failures when building with the ALL_BUGS_ARE_FATAL option
      due to missing declarations of abort(), and prevent other such
      failures in the future. Fixes bug 30189; bugfix on 0.3.4.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration, proxies, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Fix a bug that prevented us from supporting SOCKS5 proxies that
      want authentication along with configured (but unused!)
      ClientTransportPlugins. Fixes bug 29670; bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (connections, backport from 0.4.2.3-rc):
    - Avoid trying to read data from closed connections, which can cause
      needless loops in Libevent and infinite loops in Shadow. Fixes bug
      30344; bugfix on 0.1.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Allow the test-stem job to fail in Travis, because it sometimes
      hangs. Fixes bug 30744; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind on macOS in Travis, because it is unreliable on
      macOS on Travis. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind when the TOR_SKIP_TEST_REBIND environment
      variable is set. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (crash on exit, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Avoid a set of possible code paths that could try to use freed
      memory in routerlist_free() while Tor was exiting. Fixes bug
      31003; bugfix on 0.1.2.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authorities, backport from 0.4.1.3-alpha):
    - Stop crashing after parsing an unknown descriptor purpose
      annotation. We think this bug can only be triggered by modifying a
      local file. Fixes bug 30781; bugfix on 0.2.0.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authority, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Move the "bandwidth-file-headers" line in directory authority
      votes so that it conforms to dir-spec.txt. Fixes bug 30316; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (error handling, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - On abort, try harder to flush the output buffers of log messages.
      On some platforms (macOS), log messages could be discarded when
      the process terminates. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Report the tor version whenever an assertion fails. Previously, we
      only reported the Tor version on some crashes, and some non-fatal
      assertions. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (FreeBSD, PF-based proxy, IPv6, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When extracting an IPv6 address from a PF-based proxy, verify that
      we are actually configured to receive an IPv6 address, and log an
      internal error if not. Fixes part of bug 31687; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (guards, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When tor is missing descriptors for some primary entry guards,
      make the log message less alarming. It's normal for descriptors to
      expire, as long as tor fetches new ones soon after. Fixes bug
      31657; bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.0.2-alpha):
    - Avoid logging that we are relaxing a circuit timeout when that
      timeout is fixed. Fixes bug 28698; bugfix on 0.2.4.7-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Correct a misleading error message when IPv4Only or IPv6Only is
      used but the resolved address can not be interpreted as an address
      of the specified IP version. Fixes bug 13221; bugfix on
      0.2.3.9-alpha. Patch from Kris Katterjohn.
    - Log the correct port number for listening sockets when "auto" is
      used to let Tor pick the port number. Previously, port 0 was
      logged instead of the actual port number. Fixes bug 29144; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha. Patch from Kris Katterjohn.
    - Stop logging a BUG() warning when Tor is waiting for exit
      descriptors. Fixes bug 28656; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Do not log a warning when running with an OpenSSL version other
      than the one Tor was compiled with, if the two versions should be
      compatible. Previously, we would warn whenever the version was
      different. Fixes bug 30190; bugfix on 0.2.4.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change log level of message "Hash of session info was not as
      expected" to LOG_PROTOCOL_WARN. Fixes bug 12399; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.10-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Rate-limit our the logging message about the obsolete .exit
      notation. Previously, there was no limit on this warning, which
      could potentially be triggered many times by a hostile website.
      Fixes bug 31466; bugfix on 0.2.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, protocol violations, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Do not log a nonfatal assertion failure when receiving a VERSIONS
      cell on a connection using the obsolete v1 link protocol. Log a
      protocol_warn instead. Fixes bug 31107; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (mainloop, periodic events, in-process API, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Reset the periodic events' "enabled" flag when Tor is shut down
      cleanly. Previously, this flag was left on, which caused periodic
      events not to be re-enabled when Tor was relaunched in-process
      with tor_api.h after a shutdown. Fixes bug 32058; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory leak, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid a minor memory leak that could occur on relays when failing
      to create a "keys" directory. Fixes bug 30148; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory leak, backport from 0.4.1.4-rc):
    - Fix a trivial memory leak when parsing an invalid value
      from a download schedule in the configuration. Fixes bug
      30894; bugfix on 0.3.4.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory management, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Refactor the shared random state's memory management so that it
      actually takes ownership of the shared random value pointers.
      Fixes bug 29706; bugfix on 0.2.9.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory management, testing, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Stop leaking parts of the shared random state in the shared-random
      unit tests. Fixes bug 29599; bugfix on 0.2.9.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (onion services, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - Avoid a GCC 9.1.1 warning (and possible crash depending on libc
      implemenation) when failing to load an onion service client
      authorization file. Fixes bug 30475; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (out-of-memory handler, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - When purging the DNS cache because of an out-of-memory condition,
      try purging just the older entries at first. Previously, we would
      always purge the whole thing. Fixes bug 29617; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (portability, backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Avoid crashing in our tor_vasprintf() implementation on systems
      that define neither vasprintf() nor _vscprintf(). (This bug has
      been here long enough that we question whether people are running
      Tor on such systems, but we're applying the fix out of caution.)
      Fixes bug 30561; bugfix on 0.2.8.2-alpha. Found and fixed by
      Tobias Stoeckmann.

  o Minor bugfixes (relay, backport from 0.4.2.2-alpha):
    - Avoid crashing when starting with a corrupt keys directory where
      the old ntor key and the new ntor key are identical. Fixes bug
      30916; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (rust, backport from 0.4.0.5):
    - Abort on panic in all build profiles, instead of potentially
      unwinding into C code. Fixes bug 27199; bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (rust, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Correctly exclude a redundant rust build job in Travis. Fixes bug
      31463; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (single onion services, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Allow connections to single onion services to remain idle without
      being disconnected. Previously, relays acting as rendezvous points
      for single onion services were mistakenly closing idle rendezvous
      circuits after 60 seconds, thinking that they were unused
      directory-fetching circuits that had served their purpose. Fixes
      bug 29665; bugfix on 0.2.1.26.

  o Minor bugfixes (stats, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - When ExtraInfoStatistics is 0, stop including PaddingStatistics in
      relay and bridge extra-info documents. Fixes bug 29017; bugfix
      on 0.3.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Downgrade some LOG_ERR messages in the address/* tests to
      warnings. The LOG_ERR messages were occurring when we had no
      configured network. We were failing the unit tests, because we
      backported 28668 to 0.3.5.8, but did not backport 29530. Fixes bug
      29530; bugfix on 0.3.5.8.
    - Fix our gcov wrapper script to look for object files at the
      correct locations. Fixes bug 29435; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing, backport from 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - Backport the 0.3.4 src/test/test-network.sh to 0.2.9. We need a
      recent test-network.sh to use new chutney features in CI. Fixes
      bug 29703; bugfix on 0.2.9.1-alpha.
    - Fix a test failure on Windows caused by an unexpected "BUG"
      warning in our tests for tor_gmtime_r(-1). Fixes bug 29922; bugfix
      on 0.2.9.3-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - When testing port rebinding, don't busy-wait for tor to log.
      Instead, actually sleep for a short time before polling again.
      Also improve the formatting of control commands and log messages.
      Fixes bug 31837; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (TLS protocol, backport form 0.4.0.4-rc):
    - When classifying a client's selection of TLS ciphers, if the
      client ciphers are not yet available, do not cache the result.
      Previously, we had cached the unavailability of the cipher list
      and never looked again, which in turn led us to assume that the
      client only supported the ancient V1 link protocol. This, in turn,
      was causing Stem integration tests to stall in some cases. Fixes
      bug 30021; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (tls, logging, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Log bugs about the TLS read buffer's length only once, rather than
      filling the logs with similar warnings. Fixes bug 31939; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.4-rc.

  o Minor bugfixes (v2 single onion services, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Always retry v2 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v2 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rendezvous circuits were retried after a remote or
      delayed failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug
      23818; bugfix on 0.2.9.3-alpha.
    - Make v3 single onion services fall back to a 3-hop intro, when all
      intro points are unreachable via a 1-hop path. Previously, v3
      single onion services failed when all intro nodes were unreachable
      via a 1-hop path. Fixes bug 23507; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (Windows, CI, backport from 0.4.0.3-alpha):
    - Skip the Appveyor 32-bit Windows Server 2016 job, and 64-bit
      Windows Server 2012 R2 job. The remaining 2 jobs still provide
      coverage of 64/32-bit, and Windows Server 2016/2012 R2. Also set
      fast_finish, so failed jobs terminate the build immediately. Fixes
      bug 29601; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Documentation (backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Use RFC 2397 data URL scheme to embed an image into tor-exit-
      notice.html so that operators no longer have to host it
      themselves. Closes ticket 31089.

  o Testing (backport from 0.4.1.2-alpha):
    - Specify torrc paths (with empty files) when launching tor in
      integration tests; refrain from reading user and system torrcs.
      Resolves issue 29702.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.1-alpha):
    - In Travis, show stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30234.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.1.5):
    - In Travis, make stem log a controller trace to the console, and
      tail stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30591.
    - In Travis, only run the stem tests that use a tor binary. Closes
      ticket 30694.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.3-alpha):
    - Disable all but one Travis CI macOS build, to mitigate slow
      scheduling of Travis macOS jobs. Closes ticket 32177.
    - Run the chutney IPv6 networks as part of Travis CI. Closes
      ticket 30860.
    - Simplify the Travis CI build matrix, and optimise for build time.
      Closes ticket 31859.
    - Use Windows Server 2019 instead of Windows Server 2016 in our
      Appveyor builds. Closes ticket 32086.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.4-rc):
    - Use Ubuntu Bionic images for our Travis CI builds, so we can get a
      recent version of coccinelle. But leave chutney on Ubuntu Trusty,
      until we can fix some Bionic permissions issues (see ticket
      32240). Related to ticket 31919.
    - Install the mingw OpenSSL package in Appveyor. This makes sure
      that the OpenSSL headers and libraries match in Tor's Appveyor
      builds. (This bug was triggered by an Appveyor image update.)
      Fixes bug 32449; bugfix on 0.3.5.6-rc.
    - In Travis, use Xcode 11.2 on macOS 10.14. Closes ticket 32241.

  o Testing (continuous integration, backport from 0.4.2.5):
    - Require C99 standards-conforming code in Travis CI, but allow GNU gcc
      extensions. Also activates clang's -Wtypedef-redefinition warnings.
      Build some jobs with -std=gnu99, and some jobs without.
      Closes ticket 32500.

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Changes in version 0.4.2.4-rc - 2019-11-15
  Tor 0.4.2.4-rc is the first release candidate in its series. It fixes
  several bugs from earlier versions, including a few that would result in
  stack traces or incorrect behavior.

  o Minor features (build system):
    - Make pkg-config use --prefix when cross-compiling, if
      PKG_CONFIG_PATH is not set. Closes ticket 32191.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the November 6 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 32440.

  o Minor bugfixes (client, onion service v3):
    - Fix a BUG() assertion that occurs within a very small race window
      between when a client intro circuit opens and when its descriptor
      gets cleaned up from the cache. The circuit is now closed early,
      which will trigger a re-fetch of the descriptor and continue the
      connection. Fixes bug 28970; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (code quality):
    - Fix "make check-includes" so it runs correctly on out-of-tree
      builds. Fixes bug 31335; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration):
    - Log the option name when skipping an obsolete option. Fixes bug
      32295; bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (crash):
    - When running Tor with an option like --verify-config or
      --dump-config that does not start the event loop, avoid crashing
      if we try to exit early because of an error. Fixes bug 32407;
      bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory):
    - When checking if a directory connection is anonymous, test if the
      circuit was marked for close before looking at its channel. This
      avoids a BUG() stacktrace if the circuit was previously closed.
      Fixes bug 31958; bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (shellcheck):
    - Fix minor shellcheck errors in the git-*.sh scripts. Fixes bug
      32402; bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.
    - Start checking most scripts for shellcheck errors again. Fixes bug
      32402; bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.

  o Testing (continuous integration):
    - Use Ubuntu Bionic images for our Travis CI builds, so we can get a
      recent version of coccinelle. But leave chutney on Ubuntu Trusty,
      until we can fix some Bionic permissions issues (see ticket
      32240). Related to ticket 31919.
    - Install the mingw OpenSSL package in Appveyor. This makes sure
      that the OpenSSL headers and libraries match in Tor's Appveyor
      builds. (This bug was triggered by an Appveyor image update.)
      Fixes bug 32449; bugfix on 0.3.5.6-rc.
    - In Travis, use Xcode 11.2 on macOS 10.14. Closes ticket 32241.


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Changes in version 0.4.2.3-alpha - 2019-10-24
  This release fixes several bugs from the previous alpha release, and
  from earlier versions of Tor.

  o Major bugfixes (relay):
    - Relays now respect their AccountingMax bandwidth again. When
      relays entered "soft" hibernation (which typically starts when
      we've hit 90% of our AccountingMax), we had stopped checking
      whether we should enter hard hibernation. Soft hibernation refuses
      new connections and new circuits, but the existing circuits can
      continue, meaning that relays could have exceeded their configured
      AccountingMax. Fixes bug 32108; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (v3 onion services):
    - Onion services now always use the exact number of intro points
      configured with the HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints option (or
      fewer if nodes are excluded). Before, a service could sometimes
      pick more intro points than configured. Fixes bug 31548; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor feature (onion services, control port):
    - The ADD_ONION command's keyword "BEST" now defaults to ED25519-V3
      (v3) onion services. Previously it defaulted to RSA1024 (v2).
      Closes ticket 29669.

  o Minor features (testing):
    - When running tests that attempt to look up hostnames, replace the
      libc name lookup functions with ones that do not actually touch
      the network. This way, the tests complete more quickly in the
      presence of a slow or missing DNS resolver. Closes ticket 31841.

  o Minor features (testing, continuous integration):
    - Disable all but one Travis CI macOS build, to mitigate slow
      scheduling of Travis macOS jobs. Closes ticket 32177.
    - Run the chutney IPv6 networks as part of Travis CI. Closes
      ticket 30860.
    - Simplify the Travis CI build matrix, and optimise for build time.
      Closes ticket 31859.
    - Use Windows Server 2019 instead of Windows Server 2016 in our
      Appveyor builds. Closes ticket 32086.

  o Minor bugfixes (build system):
    - Interpret "--disable-module-dirauth=no" correctly. Fixes bug
      32124; bugfix on 0.3.4.1-alpha.
    - Interpret "--with-tcmalloc=no" correctly. Fixes bug 32124; bugfix
      on 0.2.0.20-rc.
    - Stop failing when jemalloc is requested, but tcmalloc is not
      found. Fixes bug 32124; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - When pkg-config is not installed, or a library that depends on
      pkg-config is not found, tell the user what to do to fix the
      problem. Fixes bug 31922; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (connections):
    - Avoid trying to read data from closed connections, which can cause
      needless loops in Libevent and infinite loops in Shadow. Fixes bug
      30344; bugfix on 0.1.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (error handling):
    - Always lock the backtrace buffer before it is used. Fixes bug
      31734; bugfix on 0.2.5.3-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (mainloop, periodic events, in-process API):
    - Reset the periodic events' "enabled" flag when Tor is shut down
      cleanly. Previously, this flag was left on, which caused periodic
      events not to be re-enabled when Tor was relaunched in-process
      with tor_api.h after a shutdown. Fixes bug 32058; bugfix
      on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (process management):
    - Remove overly strict assertions that triggered when a pluggable
      transport failed to launch. Fixes bug 31091; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
    - Remove an assertion in the Unix process backend. This assertion
      would trigger when we failed to find the executable for a child
      process. Fixes bug 31810; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing):
    - Avoid intermittent test failures due to a test that had relied on
      inconsistent timing sources. Fixes bug 31995; bugfix
      on 0.3.1.3-alpha.
    - When testing port rebinding, don't busy-wait for tor to log.
      Instead, actually sleep for a short time before polling again.
      Also improve the formatting of control commands and log messages.
      Fixes bug 31837; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (tls, logging):
    - Log bugs about the TLS read buffer's length only once, rather than
      filling the logs with similar warnings. Fixes bug 31939; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.4-rc.

  o Minor bugfixes (v3 onion services):
    - Fix an implicit conversion from ssize_t to size_t discovered by
      Coverity. Fixes bug 31682; bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.
    - Fix a memory leak in an unlikely error code path when encoding HS
      DoS establish intro extension cell. Fixes bug 32063; bugfix
      on 0.4.2.1-alpha.
    - When cleaning up intro circuits for a v3 onion service, don't
      remove circuits that have an established or pending circuit, even
      if they ran out of retries. This way, we don't remove a circuit on
      its last retry. Fixes bug 31652; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Documentation:
    - Correct the description of "GuardLifetime". Fixes bug 31189;
      bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
    - Make clear in the man page, in both the bandwidth section and the
      AccountingMax section, that Tor counts in powers of two, not
      powers of ten: 1 GByte is 1024*1024*1024 bytes, not one billion
      bytes. Resolves ticket 32106.


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Changes in version 0.4.2.2-alpha - 2019-10-07
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  This release fixes several bugs from the previous alpha release, and
  from earlier versions. It also includes a change in authorities, so
  that they begin to reject the currently unsupported release series.
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  o Major features (directory authorities):
    - Directory authorities now reject relays running all currently
      deprecated release series. The currently supported release series
      are: 0.2.9, 0.3.5, 0.4.0, 0.4.1, and 0.4.2. Closes ticket 31549.

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  o Major bugfixes (embedded Tor):
    - Avoid a possible crash when restarting Tor in embedded mode and
      enabling a different set of publish/subscribe messages. Fixes bug
      31898; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

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    - Stop ignoring torrc options after an %include directive, when the
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      included directory ends with a file that does not contain any
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      config options (but does contain comments or whitespace). Fixes
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      bug 31408; bugfix on 0.3.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor features (auto-formatting scripts):
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    - When annotating C macros, never generate a line that our check-
      spaces script would reject. Closes ticket 31759.
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    - When annotating C macros, try to remove cases of double-negation.
      Closes ticket 31779.

  o Minor features (continuous integration):
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    - When building on Appveyor and Travis, pass the "-k" flag to make,
      so that we are informed of all compilation failures, not just the
      first one or two. Closes ticket 31372.
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  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the October 1 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 31931.

  o Minor features (maintenance scripts):
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    - Add a Coccinelle script to detect bugs caused by incrementing or
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      decrementing a variable inside a call to log_debug(). Since
      log_debug() is a macro whose arguments are conditionally
      evaluated, it is usually an error to do this. One such bug was
      30628, in which SENDME cells were miscounted by a decrement
      operator inside a log_debug() call. Closes ticket 30743.
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  o Minor features (onion services v3):
    - Assist users who try to setup v2 client authorization in v3 onion
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      services by pointing them to the right documentation. Closes
      ticket 28966.
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  o Minor bugfixes (Appveyor continuous integration):
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    - Avoid spurious errors when Appveyor CI fails before the install
      step. Fixes bug 31884; bugfix on 0.3.4.2-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (best practices tracker):
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    - When listing overbroad exceptions, do not also list problems, and
      do not list insufficiently broad exceptions. Fixes bug 31338;
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      bugfix on 0.4.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (controller protocol):
    - Fix the MAPADDRESS controller command to accept one or more
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      arguments. Previously, it required two or more arguments, and
      ignored the first. Fixes bug 31772; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
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    - Add a missing check for HAVE_PTHREAD_H, because the backtrace code
      uses mutexes. Fixes bug 31614; bugfix on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Disable backtrace signal handlers when shutting down tor. Fixes
      bug 31614; bugfix on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Rate-limit our the logging message about the obsolete .exit
      notation. Previously, there was no limit on this warning, which
      could potentially be triggered many times by a hostile website.
      Fixes bug 31466; bugfix on 0.2.2.1-alpha.
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    - When initialising log domain masks, only set known log domains.
      Fixes bug 31854; bugfix on 0.2.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, protocol violations):
    - Do not log a nonfatal assertion failure when receiving a VERSIONS
      cell on a connection using the obsolete v1 link protocol. Log a
      protocol_warn instead. Fixes bug 31107; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (modules):
    - Explain what the optional Directory Authority module is, and what
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      happens when it is disabled. Fixes bug 31825; bugfix
      on 0.3.4.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (multithreading):
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    - Avoid some undefined behaviour when freeing mutexes. Fixes bug
      31736; bugfix on 0.0.7.
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  o Minor bugfixes (relay):
    - Avoid crashing when starting with a corrupt keys directory where
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      the old ntor key and the new ntor key are identical. Fixes bug
      30916; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (tests, SunOS):
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    - Avoid a map_anon_nofork test failure due to a signed/unsigned
      integer comparison. Fixes bug 31897; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Code simplification and refactoring:
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    - Refactor connection_control_process_inbuf() to reduce the size of
      a practracker exception. Closes ticket 31840.
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    - Refactor the microdescs_parse_from_string() function into smaller
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      pieces, for better comprehensibility. Closes ticket 31675.
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    - Use SEVERITY_MASK_IDX() to find the LOG_* mask indexes in the unit
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      tests and fuzzers, rather than using hard-coded values. Closes
      ticket 31334.
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    - Interface for function `decrypt_desc_layer` cleaned up. Closes
      ticket 31589.
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  o Documentation:
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    - Document the signal-safe logging behaviour in the tor man page.
      Also add some comments to the relevant functions. Closes
      ticket 31839.
    - Explain why we can't destroy the backtrace buffer mutex. Explain
      why we don't need to destroy the log mutex. Closes ticket 31736.
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    - The Tor source code repository now includes a (somewhat dated)
      description of Tor's modular architecture, in doc/HACKING/design.
      This is based on the old "tor-guts.git" repository, which we are
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      adopting and superseding. Closes ticket 31849.

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Changes in version 0.4.1.6 - 2019-09-19
  This release backports several bugfixes to improve stability and
  correctness.  Anyone experiencing build problems or crashes with 0.4.1.5,
  or experiencing reliability issues with single onion services, should
  upgrade.

  o Major bugfixes (crash, Linux, Android, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Tolerate systems (including some Android installations) where
      madvise and MADV_DONTDUMP are available at build-time, but not at
      run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed syscall
      and abort. Fixes bug 31570; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
    - Tolerate systems (including some Linux installations) where
      madvise and/or MADV_DONTFORK are available at build-time, but not
      at run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed
      syscall and abort. Fixes bug 31696; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (stem tests, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change "make test-stem" so it only runs the stem tests that use
      tor. This change makes test-stem faster and more reliable. Closes
      ticket 31554.

  o Minor bugfixes (build system, backport form 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Do not include the deprecated <sys/sysctl.h> on Linux or Windows
      systems. Fixes bug 31673; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Add more stub functions to fix compilation on Android with link-
      time optimization when --disable-module-dirauth is used.
      Previously, these compilation settings would make the compiler
      look for functions that didn't exist. Fixes bug 31552; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
    - Suppress spurious float-conversion warnings from GCC when calling
      floating-point classifier functions on FreeBSD. Fixes part of bug
      31687; bugfix on 0.3.1.5-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (controller protocol):
    - Fix the MAPADDRESS controller command to accept one or more
      arguments. Previously, it required two or more arguments, and ignored
      the first. Fixes bug 31772; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

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  o Minor bugfixes (FreeBSD, PF-based proxy, IPv6, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When extracting an IPv6 address from a PF-based proxy, verify that
      we are actually configured to receive an IPv6 address, and log an
      internal error if not. Fixes part of bug 31687; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.4-alpha.

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  o Minor bugfixes (guards, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - When tor is missing descriptors for some primary entry guards,
      make the log message less alarming. It's normal for descriptors to
      expire, as long as tor fetches new ones soon after. Fixes bug
      31657; bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Change log level of message "Hash of session info was not as
      expected" to LOG_PROTOCOL_WARN. Fixes bug 12399; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.10-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (rust, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Correctly exclude a redundant rust build job in Travis. Fixes bug
      31463; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (v2 single onion services, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Always retry v2 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v2 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rendezvous circuits were retried after a remote or
      delayed failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug
      23818; bugfix on 0.2.9.3-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (v3 single onion services, backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Always retry v3 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v3 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rend circuits were retried after a remote or delayed
      failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug 23818;
      bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.
    - Make v3 single onion services fall back to a 3-hop intro, when all
      intro points are unreachable via a 1-hop path. Previously, v3
      single onion services failed when all intro nodes were unreachable
      via a 1-hop path. Fixes bug 23507; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Documentation (backport from 0.4.2.1-alpha):
    - Use RFC 2397 data URL scheme to embed an image into tor-exit-
      notice.html so that operators no longer have to host it
      themselves. Closes ticket 31089.


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Changes in version 0.4.2.1-alpha - 2019-09-17
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  This is the first alpha release in the 0.4.2.x series. It adds new
  defenses for denial-of-service attacks against onion services. It also
  includes numerous kinds of bugfixes and refactoring to help improve
  Tor's stability and ease of development.
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  o Major features (onion service v3, denial of service):
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    - Add onion service introduction denial of service defenses. Intro
      points can now rate-limit client introduction requests, using
      parameters that can be sent by the service within the
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      ESTABLISH_INTRO cell. If the cell extension for this is not used,
      the intro point will honor the consensus parameters. Closes
      ticket 30924.
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  o Major bugfixes (circuit build, guard):
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    - When considering upgrading circuits from "waiting for guard" to
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      "open", always ignore circuits that are marked for close.
      Previously we could end up in the situation where a subsystem is
      notified of a circuit opening, but the circuit is still marked for
      close, leading to undesirable behavior. Fixes bug 30871; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
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    - Tolerate systems (including some Android installations) where
      madvise and MADV_DONTDUMP are available at build-time, but not at
      run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed syscall
      and abort. Fixes bug 31570; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
    - Tolerate systems (including some Linux installations) where
      madvise and/or MADV_DONTFORK are available at build-time, but not
      at run time. Previously, these systems would notice a failed
      syscall and abort. Fixes bug 31696; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor features (best practices tracker):
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    - Our best-practices tracker now integrates with our include-checker
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      tool to keep track of how many layering violations we have not yet
      fixed. We hope to reduce this number over time to improve Tor's
      modularity. Closes ticket 31176.
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    - Add a TOR_PRACTRACKER_OPTIONS variable for passing arguments to
      practracker from the environment. We may want this for continuous
      integration. Closes ticket 31309.
    - Give a warning rather than an error when a practracker exception
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      practracker that lists exceptions that are stricter than they need
      to be, and provide an environment variable for disabling
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      practracker. Closes ticket 30752.
    - Our best-practices tracker now looks at headers as well as C
      files. Closes ticket 31175.
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  o Minor features (build system):
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    - Add --disable-manpage and --disable-html-manual options to
      configure script. This will enable shortening build times by not
      building documentation. Resolves issue 19381.
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  o Minor features (compilation):
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    - Log a more useful error message when we are compiling and one of
      the compile-time hardening options we have selected can be linked
      but not executed. Closes ticket 27530.
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  o Minor features (configuration):
    - The configuration code has been extended to allow splitting
      configuration data across multiple objects. Previously, all
      configuration data needed to be kept in a single object, which
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  o Minor features (continuous integration):
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      file from its default location. Resolves issue 30102.
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  o Minor features (debugging):
    - Log a nonfatal assertion failure if we encounter a configuration
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      line whose command is "CLEAR" but which has a nonempty value. This
      should be impossible, according to the rules of our configuration
      line parsing. Closes ticket 31529.
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  o Minor features (git hooks):
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    - Our pre-commit git hook now checks for a special file before
      running practracker, so that practracker only runs on branches
      that are based on master. Since the pre-push hook calls the pre-
      commit hook, practracker will also only run before pushes of
      branches based on master. Closes ticket 30979.
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  o Minor features (git scripts):
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    - Add a "--" command-line argument, to separate git-push-all.sh
      script arguments from arguments that are passed through to git
      push. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a -r <remote-name> argument to git-push-all.sh, so the script
      can push test branches to a personal remote. Closes ticket 31314.
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      git-push-all.sh, which makes these scripts create, merge forward,
      and push test branches. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a -u argument to git-merge-forward.sh, so that the script can
      re-use existing test branches after a merge failure and fix.
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    - Add a TOR_GIT_PUSH env var, which sets the default git push
      command and arguments for git-push-all.sh. Closes ticket 31314.
    - Add a TOR_PUSH_DELAY variable to git-push-all.sh, which makes the
      script push master and maint branches with a delay between each
      branch. These delays trigger the CI jobs in a set order, which
      should show the most likely failures first. Also make pushes
      atomic by default, and make the script pass any command-line
      arguments to git push. Closes ticket 29879.
    - Call the shellcheck script from the pre-commit hook. Closes
      ticket 30967.
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      maint/release/master branch in git-push-all.sh by default. Add a
      -s argument, so git-push-all.sh can push all test branches. Closes
      ticket 31314.
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  o Minor features (IPv6, logging):
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    - Log IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 addresses when describing
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  o Minor features (onion service v3):
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  o Minor features (onion service):
    - Disallow single-hop clients at the introduction point. We've
      removed Tor2web support a while back and single-hop rendezvous
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    - Change "make test-stem" so it only runs the stem tests that use
      tor. This change makes test-stem faster and more reliable. Closes
      ticket 31554.
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  o Minor features (testing):
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    - Add a script to invoke "tor --dump-config" and "tor
      --verify-config" with various configuration options, and see
      whether tor's resulting configuration or error messages are what
      we expect. Use it for integration testing of our +Option and
      /Option flags. Closes ticket 31637.
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      management API. Closes ticket 30893.
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      outputs we expect. Closes ticket 31477.
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    - The practracker self-tests are now run as part of the Tor test
      suite. Closes ticket 31304.

  o Minor features (token bucket):
    - Implement a generic token bucket that uses a single counter, for
      use in anti-DoS onion service work. Closes ticket 30687.
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  o Minor bugfixes (best practices tracker):
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    - Fix a few issues in the best-practices script, including tests,
      tab tolerance, error reporting, and directory-exclusion logic.
      Fixes bug 29746; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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    - When running check-best-practices, only consider files in the src
      subdirectory. Previously we had recursively considered all
      subdirectories, which made us get confused by the temporary
      directories made by "make distcheck". Fixes bug 31578; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (build system):
    - Do not include the deprecated <sys/sysctl.h> on Linux or Windows
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  o Minor bugfixes (chutney, makefiles, documentation):
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      early. We've also improved the documentation for this feature, and
      renamed a Makefile variable so the code is self-documenting. Fixes
      bug 30455; bugfix on 0.3.0.4-rc.
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  o Minor bugfixes (compilation):
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    - Add more stub functions to fix compilation on Android with link-
      time optimization when --disable-module-dirauth is used.
      Previously, these compilation settings would make the compiler
      look for functions that didn't exist. Fixes bug 31552; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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    - Suppress spurious float-conversion warnings from GCC when calling
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      floating-point classifier functions on FreeBSD. Fixes part of bug
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  o Minor bugfixes (configuration):
    - Invalid floating-point values in the configuration file are now
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      ignored and treated as zero. Fixes bug 31475; bugfix on 0.0.1.
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    - Add an assertion when parsing a BEGIN cell so that coverity can be
      sure that we are not about to dereference a NULL address. Fixes
      bug 31026; bugfix on 0.2.4.7-alpha. This is CID 1447296.
    - In our siphash implementation, when building for coverity, use
      memcpy in place of a switch statement, so that coverity can tell
      we are not accessing out-of-bounds memory. Fixes bug 31025; bugfix
      on 0.2.8.1-alpha. This is tracked as CID 1447293 and 1447295.
    - Fix several coverity warnings from our unit tests. Fixes bug
      31030; bugfix on 0.2.4.1-alpha, 0.3.2.1-alpha, and 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (developer tooling):
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    - Only log git script changes in the post-merge script when the
      merge was to the master branch. Fixes bug 31040; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (directory authorities):
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    - Return a distinct status when formatting annotations fails. Fixes
      bug 30780; bugfix on 0.2.0.8-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (error handling):
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      On some platforms (macOS), log messages could be discarded when
      the process terminates. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
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    - Report the tor version whenever an assertion fails. Previously, we
      only reported the Tor version on some crashes, and some non-fatal
      assertions. Fixes bug 31571; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
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    - When tor aborts due to an error, close log file descriptors before
      aborting. Closing the logs makes some OSes flush log file buffers,
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      rather than deleting buffered log lines. Fixes bug 31594; bugfix
      on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (FreeBSD, PF-based proxy, IPv6):
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    - When extracting an IPv6 address from a PF-based proxy, verify that
      we are actually configured to receive an IPv6 address, and log an
      internal error if not. Fixes part of bug 31687; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.4-alpha.
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    - Remove a duplicate call to practracker from the pre-push hook. The
      pre-push hook already calls the pre-commit hook, which calls
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      practracker. Fixes bug 31462; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (git scripts):
    - Stop hard-coding the bash path in the git scripts. Some OSes don't
      have bash in /usr/bin, others have an ancient bash at this path.
      Fixes bug 30840; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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    - Stop hard-coding the tor master branch name and worktree path in
      the git scripts. Fixes bug 30841; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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    - Allow git-push-all.sh to be run from any directory. Previously,
      the script only worked if run from an upstream worktree directory.
      Closes ticket 31678.
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  o Minor bugfixes (guards):
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    - When tor is missing descriptors for some primary entry guards,
      make the log message less alarming. It's normal for descriptors to
      expire, as long as tor fetches new ones soon after. Fixes bug
      31657; bugfix on 0.3.3.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (ipv6):
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    - Check for private IPv6 addresses alongside their IPv4 equivalents
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      when authorities check descriptors. Previously, we only checked
      for private IPv4 addresses. Fixes bug 31088; bugfix on
      0.2.3.21-rc. Patch by Neel Chauhan.
    - When parsing microdescriptors, we should check the IPv6 exit
      policy alongside IPv4. Previously, we checked both exit policies
      for only router info structures, while microdescriptors were
      IPv4-only. Fixes bug 27284; bugfix on 0.2.3.1-alpha. Patch by
      Neel Chauhan.
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  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
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    - Change log level of message "Hash of session info was not as
      expected" to LOG_PROTOCOL_WARN. Fixes bug 12399; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.10-alpha.
    - Fix a code issue that would have broken our parsing of log domains
      as soon as we had 33 of them. Fortunately, we still only have 29.
      Fixes bug 31451; bugfix on 0.4.1.4-rc.
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  o Minor bugfixes (memory management):
    - Stop leaking a small amount of memory in nt_service_install(), in
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      unreachable code. Fixes bug 30799; bugfix on 0.2.0.7-alpha. Patch
      by Xiaoyin Liu.
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  o Minor bugfixes (networking, IP addresses):
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      IPv4 addresses in square brackets, and accept IPv6 addresses in
      square brackets. This change completes the work started in 23082,
      making address parsing consistent between tor's internal DNS
      lookup and address parsing APIs. Fixes bug 30721; bugfix
      on 0.2.1.5-alpha.
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    - When parsing addresses via Tor's internal address:port parsing and
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      they have square brackets. Fixes bug 30721; bugfix
      on 0.2.1.5-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (onion service v3):
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    - When purging the client descriptor cache, close any introduction
      point circuits associated with purged cache entries. This avoids
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      picking those circuits later when connecting to the same
      introduction points. Fixes bug 30921; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (onion services):
    - In the hs_ident_circuit_t data structure, remove the unused field
      circuit_type and the respective argument in hs_ident_circuit_new().
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      This field was set by clients (for introduction) and services (for
      introduction and rendezvous) but was never used afterwards. Fixes
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      bug 31490; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha. Patch by Neel Chauhan.

  o Minor bugfixes (operator tools):
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    - Make tor-print-ed-signing-cert(1) print certificate expiration
      date in RFC 1123 and UNIX timestamp formats, to make output
      machine readable. Fixes bug 31012; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (rust):
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    - Correctly exclude a redundant rust build job in Travis. Fixes bug
      31463; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.
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    - Raise the minimum rustc version to 1.31.0, as checked by configure
      and CI. Fixes bug 31442; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (sendme, code structure):
    - Rename the trunnel SENDME file definition from sendme.trunnel to
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      sendme_cell.trunnel to avoid having twice sendme.{c|h} in the
      repository. Fixes bug 30769; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (statistics):
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    - Stop removing the ed25519 signature if the extra info file is too
      big. If the signature data was removed, but the keyword was kept,
      this could result in an unparseable extra info file. Fixes bug
      30958; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (subsystems):
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    - Make the subsystem init order match the subsystem module
      dependencies. Call windows process security APIs as early as
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      possible. Initialize logging before network and time, so that
      network and time can use logging. Fixes bug 31615; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (testing):
    - Teach the util/socketpair_ersatz test to work correctly when we
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      have no network stack configured. Fixes bug 30804; bugfix
      on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (v2 single onion services):
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    - Always retry v2 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v2 single onion services used a 3-hop
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      path when rendezvous circuits were retried after a remote or
      delayed failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug
      23818; bugfix on 0.2.9.3-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (v3 single onion services):
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    - Always retry v3 single onion service intro and rend circuits with
      a 3-hop path. Previously, v3 single onion services used a 3-hop
      path when rend circuits were retried after a remote or delayed
      failure, but a 1-hop path for immediate retries. Fixes bug 23818;
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    - Make v3 single onion services fall back to a 3-hop intro, when all
      intro points are unreachable via a 1-hop path. Previously, v3
      single onion services failed when all intro nodes were unreachable
      via a 1-hop path. Fixes bug 23507; bugfix on 0.3.2.1-alpha.
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  o Documentation:
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    - Improve documentation in circuit padding subsystem. Patch by
      Tobias Pulls. Closes ticket 31113.
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    - Include an example usage for IPv6 ORPort in our sample torrc.
      Closes ticket 31320; patch from Ali Raheem.
    - Use RFC 2397 data URL scheme to embed an image into tor-exit-
      notice.html so that operators no longer have to host it
      themselves. Closes ticket 31089.

  o Removed features:
    - No longer include recommended package digests in votes as detailed
      in proposal 301. The RecommendedPackages torrc option is
      deprecated and will no longer have any effect. "package" lines
      will still be considered when computing consensuses for consensus
      methods that include them. (This change has no effect on the list
      of recommended Tor versions, which is still in use.) Closes
      ticket 29738.
    - Remove torctl.in from contrib/dist directory. Resolves
      ticket 30550.

  o Testing:
    - Run shellcheck for all non-third-party shell scripts that are
      shipped with Tor. Closes ticket 29533.
    - When checking shell scripts, ignore any user-created directories.
      Closes ticket 30967.

  o Code simplification and refactoring (config handling):
    - Extract our variable manipulation code from confparse.c to a new
      lower-level typedvar.h module. Closes ticket 30864.
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    - Lower another layer of object management from confparse.c to a
      more general tool. Now typed structure members are accessible via
      an abstract type. Implements ticket 30914.
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      files into a lower-level library, since it no longer depends on
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    - Numerous simplifications in configuration-handling logic: remove
      duplicated macro definitions, replace magical names with flags,
      and refactor "TestingTorNetwork" to use the same default-option
      logic as the rest of Tor. Closes ticket 30935.
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    - Replace our ad-hoc set of flags for configuration variables and
      configuration variable types with fine-grained orthogonal flags
      corresponding to the actual behavior we want. Closes ticket 31625.
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  o Code simplification and refactoring (misc):
    - Eliminate some uses of lower-level control reply abstractions,
      primarily in the onion_helper functions. Closes ticket 30889.
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      subsystem. Closes ticket 29976.
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    - Rewrite format_node_description() and router_get_verbose_nickname()
      to use strlcpy() and strlcat(). The previous implementation used
      memcpy() and pointer arithmetic, which was error-prone. Closes
      ticket 31545. This is CID 1452819.
    - Split extrainfo_dump_to_string() into smaller functions. Closes
      ticket 30956.
    - Use the ptrdiff_t type consistently for expressing variable
      offsets and pointer differences. Previously we incorrectly (but
      harmlessly) used int and sometimes off_t for these cases. Closes
      ticket 31532.
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      Closes ticket 30806.
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    - Various simplifications and minor improvements to the circuit
      padding machines. Patch by Tobias Pulls. Closes tickets 31112
      and 31098.
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  o Documentation (hard-coded directories):
    - Improve the documentation for the DirAuthority and FallbackDir
      torrc options. Closes ticket 30955.

  o Documentation (tor.1 man page):
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    - Fix typo in tor.1 man page: the option is "--help", not "-help".
      Fixes bug 31008; bugfix on 0.2.2.9-alpha.
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Changes in version 0.4.1.5 - 2019-08-20
  This is the first stable release in the 0.4.1.x series. This series
  adds experimental circuit-level padding, authenticated SENDME cells to
  defend against certain attacks, and several performance improvements
  to save on CPU consumption. It fixes bugs in bootstrapping and v3
  onion services. It also includes numerous smaller features and
  bugfixes on earlier versions.

  Per our support policy, we will support the 0.4.1.x series for nine
  months, or until three months after the release of a stable 0.4.2.x:
  whichever is longer. If you need longer-term support, please stick
  with 0.3.5.x, which will we plan to support until Feb 2022.

  Below are the changes since 0.4.1.4-rc. For a complete list of changes
  since 0.4.0.5, see the ReleaseNotes file.

  o Directory authority changes:
    - The directory authority "dizum" has a new IP address. Closes
      ticket 31406.

  o Minor features (circuit padding logging):
    - Demote noisy client-side warn logs about circuit padding to
      protocol warnings. Add additional log messages and circuit ID
      fields to help with bug 30992 and any other future issues.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit padding negotiation):
    - Bump the circuit padding protocol version to explicitly signify
      that the HS setup machine support is finalized in 0.4.1.x-stable.
      This also means that 0.4.1.x-alpha clients will not negotiate
      padding with 0.4.1.x-stable relays, and 0.4.1.x-stable clients
      will not negotiate padding with 0.4.1.x-alpha relays (or 0.4.0.x
      relays). Fixes bug 31356; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit padding):
    - Ignore non-padding cells on padding circuits. This addresses
      various warning messages from subsystems that were not expecting
      padding circuits. Fixes bug 30942; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (clock skew detection):
    - Don't believe clock skew results from NETINFO cells that appear to
      arrive before we sent the VERSIONS cells they are responding to.
      Previously, we would accept them up to 3 minutes "in the past".
      Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compatibility, standards compliance):
    - Fix a bug that would invoke undefined behavior on certain
      operating systems when trying to asprintf() a string exactly
      INT_MAX bytes long. We don't believe this is exploitable, but it's
      better to fix it anyway. Fixes bug 31001; bugfix on 0.2.2.11-alpha.
      Found and fixed by Tobias Stoeckmann.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation warning):
    - Fix a compilation warning on Windows about casting a function
      pointer for GetTickCount64(). Fixes bug 31374; bugfix
      on 0.2.9.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation):
    - Avoid using labs() on time_t, which can cause compilation warnings
      on 64-bit Windows builds. Fixes bug 31343; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (distribution):
    - Do not ship any temporary files found in the
      scripts/maint/practracker directory. Fixes bug 31311; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Testing (continuous integration):
    - In Travis, make stem log a controller trace to the console, and
      tail stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30591.
    - In Travis, only run the stem tests that use a tor binary. Closes
      ticket 30694.


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Changes in version 0.4.1.4-rc - 2019-07-25
  Tor 0.4.1.4-rc fixes a few bugs from previous versions of Tor, and
  updates to a new list of fallback directories. If no new bugs are
  found, the next release in the 0.4.1.x serious should be stable.

  o Major bugfixes (circuit build, guard):
    - When considering upgrading circuits from "waiting for guard" to
      "open", always ignore circuits that are marked for close. Otherwise,
      we can end up in the situation where a subsystem is notified that
      a closing circuit has just opened, leading to undesirable
      behavior. Fixes bug 30871; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (continuous integration):
    - Our Travis configuration now uses Chutney to run some network
      integration tests automatically. Closes ticket 29280.

  o Minor features (fallback directory list):
    - Replace the 157 fallbacks originally introduced in Tor 0.3.5.6-rc
      in December 2018 (of which ~122 were still functional), with a
      list of 148 fallbacks (70 new, 78 existing, 79 removed) generated
      in June 2019. Closes ticket 28795.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit padding):
    - On relays, properly check that a padding machine is absent before
      logging a warning about it being absent. Fixes bug 30649; bugfix
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    - Add two NULL checks in unreachable places to silence Coverity (CID
      144729 and 1447291) and better future-proof ourselves. Fixes bug
      31024; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (crash on exit):
    - Avoid a set of possible code paths that could try to use freed
      memory in routerlist_free() while Tor was exiting. Fixes bug
      31003; bugfix on 0.1.2.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
    - Fix a conflict between the flag used for messaging-domain log
      messages, and the LD_NO_MOCK testing flag. Fixes bug 31080; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (memory leaks):
    - Fix a trivial memory leak when parsing an invalid value from a
      download schedule in the configuration. Fixes bug 30894; bugfix
      on 0.3.4.1-alpha.

  o Code simplification and refactoring:
    - Remove some dead code from circpad_machine_remove_token() to fix
      some Coverity warnings (CID 1447298). Fixes bug 31027; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.


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Changes in version 0.4.1.3-alpha - 2019-06-25
  Tor 0.4.1.3-alpha resolves numerous bugs left over from the previous
  alpha, most of them from earlier release series.

  o Major bugfixes (Onion service reachability):
    - Properly clean up the introduction point map when circuits change
      purpose from onion service circuits to pathbias, measurement, or
      other circuit types. This should fix some service-side instances
      of introduction point failure. Fixes bug 29034; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the June 10 2019 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database. Closes ticket 30852.

  o Minor features (logging):
    - Give a more useful assertion failure message if we think we have
      minherit() but we fail to make a region non-inheritable. Give a
      compile-time warning if our support for minherit() is incomplete.
      Closes ticket 30686.

  o Minor bugfixes (circuit isolation):
    - Fix a logic error that prevented the SessionGroup sub-option from
      being accepted. Fixes bug 22619; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (continuous integration):
    - Allow the test-stem job to fail in Travis, because it sometimes
      hangs. Fixes bug 30744; bugfix on 0.3.5.4-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind on macOS in Travis, because it is unreliable on
      macOS on Travis. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
    - Skip test_rebind when the TOR_SKIP_TEST_REBIND environment
      variable is set. Fixes bug 30713; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (directory authorities):
    - Stop crashing after parsing an unknown descriptor purpose
      annotation. We think this bug can only be triggered by modifying a
      local file. Fixes bug 30781; bugfix on 0.2.0.8-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (pluggable transports):
    - When running as a bridge with pluggable transports, always publish
      pluggable transport information in our extrainfo descriptor, even
      if ExtraInfoStatistics is 0. This information is needed by
      BridgeDB. Fixes bug 30956; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.

  o Documentation:
    - Mention URLs for Travis/Appveyor/Jenkins in ReleasingTor.md.
      Closes ticket 30630.


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Changes in version 0.4.1.2-alpha - 2019-06-06
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  Tor 0.4.1.2-alpha resolves numerous bugs--some of them from the
  previous alpha, and some much older. It also contains minor testing
  improvements, and an improvement to the security of our authenticated
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  SENDME implementation.
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  o Major bugfixes (bridges):
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    - Consider our directory information to have changed when our list
      of bridges changes. Previously, Tor would not re-compute the
      status of its directory information when bridges changed, and
      therefore would not realize that it was no longer able to build
      circuits. Fixes part of bug 29875.
    - Do not count previously configured working bridges towards our
      total of working bridges. Previously, when Tor's list of bridges
      changed, it would think that the old bridges were still usable,
      and delay fetching router descriptors for the new ones. Fixes part
      of bug 29875; bugfix on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
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  o Major bugfixes (flow control, SENDME):
    - Decrement the stream-level package window after packaging a cell.
      Previously, it was done inside a log_debug() call, meaning that if
      debug logs were not enabled, the decrement would never happen, and
      thus the window would be out of sync with the other end point.
      Fixes bug 30628; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Major bugfixes (onion service reachability):
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    - Properly clean up the introduction point map and associated state
      when circuits change purpose from onion service circuits to
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      pathbias, measurement, or other circuit types. This may fix some
      instances of introduction point failure. Fixes bug 29034; bugfix
      on 0.3.2.1-alpha.
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  o Minor features (authenticated SENDME):
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    - Ensure that there is enough randomness on every circuit to prevent
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      an attacker from successfully predicting the hashes they will need
      to include in authenticated SENDME cells. At a random interval, if
      we have not sent randomness already, we now leave some extra space
      at the end of a cell that we can fill with random bytes. Closes
      ticket 26846.
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  o Minor features (continuous integration):
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    - When running coverage builds on Travis, we now set
      TOR_TEST_RNG_SEED, to avoid RNG-based coverage differences. Part
      of ticket 28878.
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  o Minor features (maintenance):
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    - Add a new "make autostyle" target that developers can use to apply
      all automatic Tor style and consistency conversions to the
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      codebase. Closes ticket 30539.

  o Minor features (testing):
    - The circuitpadding tests now use a reproducible RNG implementation,
      so that if a test fails, we can learn why. Part of ticket 28878.
    - Tor's tests now support an environment variable, TOR_TEST_RNG_SEED,
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      to set the RNG seed for tests that use a reproducible RNG. Part of
      ticket 28878.
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    - When running tests in coverage mode, take additional care to make
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      our coverage deterministic, so that we can accurately track
      changes in code coverage. Closes ticket 30519.
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  o Minor bugfixes (configuration, proxies):
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    - Fix a bug that prevented us from supporting SOCKS5 proxies that
      want authentication along with configured (but unused!)
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      ClientTransportPlugins. Fixes bug 29670; bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (controller):
    - POSTDESCRIPTOR requests should work again. Previously, they were
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      broken if a "purpose=" flag was specified. Fixes bug 30580; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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    - Repair the HSFETCH command so that it works again. Previously, it
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      expected a body when it shouldn't have. Fixes bug 30646; bugfix
      on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (developer tooling):
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    - Fix pre-push hook to allow fixup and squash commits when pushing
      to non-upstream git remote. Fixes bug 30286; bugfix
      on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (directory authority):
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    - Move the "bandwidth-file-headers" line in directory authority
      votes so that it conforms to dir-spec.txt. Fixes bug 30316; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (NetBSD):
    - Fix usage of minherit() on NetBSD and other platforms that define
      MAP_INHERIT_{ZERO,NONE} instead of INHERIT_{ZERO,NONE}. Fixes bug
      30614; bugfix on 0.4.0.2-alpha. Patch from Taylor Campbell.

  o Minor bugfixes (out-of-memory handler):
    - When purging the DNS cache because of an out-of-memory condition,
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      try purging just the older entries at first. Previously, we would
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      always purge the whole thing. Fixes bug 29617; bugfix
      on 0.3.5.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (portability):
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    - Avoid crashing in our tor_vasprintf() implementation on systems
      that define neither vasprintf() nor _vscprintf(). (This bug has
      been here long enough that we question whether people are running
      Tor on such systems, but we're applying the fix out of caution.)
      Fixes bug 30561; bugfix on 0.2.8.2-alpha. Found and fixed by
      Tobias Stoeckmann.
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  o Minor bugfixes (shutdown, libevent, memory safety):
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    - Avoid use-after-free bugs when shutting down, by making sure that
      we shut down libevent only after shutting down all of its users.
      We believe these are harmless in practice, since they only occur
      on the shutdown path, and do not involve any attacker-controlled
      data. Fixes bug 30629; bugfix on 0.4.1.1-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (static analysis):
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    - Fix several spurious Coverity warnings about the unit tests, to
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      lower our chances of missing real warnings in the future. Fixes
      bug 30150; bugfix on 0.3.5.1-alpha and various other Tor versions.
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  o Testing:
    - Specify torrc paths (with empty files) when launching tor in
      integration tests; refrain from reading user and system torrcs.
      Resolves issue 29702.


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Changes in version 0.4.1.1-alpha - 2019-05-22
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  This is the first alpha in the 0.4.1.x series. It introduces
  lightweight circuit padding to make some onion-service circuits harder
  to distinguish, includes a new "authenticated SENDME" feature to make
  certain denial-of-service attacks more difficult, and improves
  performance in several areas.

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  o Major features (circuit padding):
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    - Onion service clients now add padding cells at the start of their
      INTRODUCE and RENDEZVOUS circuits, to make those circuits' traffic
      look more like general purpose Exit traffic. The overhead for this
      is 2 extra cells in each direction for RENDEZVOUS circuits, and 1
      extra upstream cell and 10 downstream cells for INTRODUCE
      circuits. This feature is only enabled when also supported by the
      circuit's middle node. (Clients may specify fixed middle nodes
      with the MiddleNodes option, and may force-disable this feature
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      with the CircuitPadding option.) Closes ticket 28634.
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  o Major features (code organization):
    - Tor now includes a generic publish-subscribe message-passing
      subsystem that we can use to organize intermodule dependencies. We
      hope to use this to reduce dependencies between modules that don't
      need to be related, and to generally simplify our codebase. Closes
      ticket 28226.

  o Major features (controller protocol):
    - Controller commands are now parsed using a generalized parsing
      subsystem. Previously, each controller command was responsible for
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      Closes ticket 30091.
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  o Major features (flow control):
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    - Implement authenticated SENDMEs as detailed in proposal 289. A
      SENDME cell now includes the digest of the traffic that it
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      acknowledges, so that once an end point receives the SENDME, it
      can confirm the other side's knowledge of the previous cells that
      were sent, and prevent certain types of denial-of-service attacks.
      This behavior is controlled by two new consensus parameters: see
      the proposal for more details. Fixes ticket 26288.
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  o Major features (performance):
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    - Our node selection algorithm now excludes nodes in linear time.
      Previously, the algorithm was quadratic, which could slow down
      heavily used onion services. Closes ticket 30307.
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  o Major features (performance, RNG):
    - Tor now constructs a fast secure pseudorandom number generator for
      each thread, to use when performance is critical. This PRNG is
      based on AES-CTR, using a buffering construction similar to
      libottery and the (newer) OpenBSD arc4random() code. It
      outperforms OpenSSL 1.1.1a's CSPRNG by roughly a factor of 100 for
      small outputs. Although we believe it to be cryptographically
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      strong, we are only using it when necessary for performance.
      Implements tickets 29023 and 29536.
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    - Fix an unreachable bug in which an introduction point could try to
      send an INTRODUCE_ACK with a status code that Trunnel would refuse
      to encode, leading the relay to assert(). We've consolidated the
      ABI values into Trunnel now. Fixes bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.
    - Clients can now handle unknown status codes from INTRODUCE_ACK
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      cells. (The NACK behavior will stay the same.) This will allow us
      to extend status codes in the future without breaking the normal
      client behavior. Fixes another part of bug 30454; bugfix
      on 0.3.0.1-alpha.

2169
  o Minor features (circuit padding):
2170
    - We now use a fast PRNG when scheduling circuit padding. Part of
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      ticket 28636.
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2173
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    - Allow the padding machine designer to pick the edges of their
      histogram instead of trying to compute them automatically using an
      exponential formula. Resolves some undefined behavior in the case
      of small histograms and allows greater flexibility on machine
      design. Closes ticket 29298; bugfix on 0.4.0.1-alpha.
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    - Allow circuit padding machines to hold a circuit open until they
      are done padding it. Closes ticket 28780.
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2180

  o Minor features (compile-time modules):
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2182
    - Add a "--list-modules" command to print a list of which compile-
      time modules are enabled. Closes ticket 30452.
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2187

  o Minor features (continuous integration):
    - Remove sudo configuration lines from .travis.yml as they are no
      longer needed with current Travis build environment. Resolves
      issue 30213.
2188
    - In Travis, show stem's tor log after failure. Closes ticket 30234.
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2190

  o Minor features (controller):
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    - Add onion service version 3 support to the HSFETCH command.
      Previously, only version 2 onion services were supported. Closes
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      ticket 25417. Patch by Neel Chauhan.
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2197

  o Minor features (debugging):
    - Introduce tor_assertf() and tor_assertf_nonfatal() to enable
      logging of additional information during assert failure. Now we
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      can use format strings to include information for trouble
      shooting. Resolves ticket 29662.
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2201

  o Minor features (defense in depth):
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2205
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    - In smartlist_remove_keeporder(), set unused pointers to NULL, in
      case a bug causes them to be used later. Closes ticket 30176.
      Patch from Tobias Stoeckmann.
    - Tor now uses a cryptographically strong PRNG even for decisions
      that we do not believe are security-sensitive. Previously, for
      performance reasons, we had used a trivially predictable linear
      congruential generator algorithm for certain load-balancing and
      statistical sampling decisions. Now we use our fast RNG in those
      cases. Closes ticket 29542.
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