Commit 5e050798 authored by Roger Dingledine's avatar Roger Dingledine
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partial update of the spec

still wrong in plenty of places


svn:r301
parent 8e242d9b
$Id$
TOR (The Onion Router) Spec
TOR Spec
Note: This is an attempt to specify TOR as it exists as implemented in
early March, 2003. It is not recommended that others implement this
early June, 2003. It is not recommended that others implement this
design as it stands; future versions of TOR will implement improved
protocols.
......@@ -18,22 +18,23 @@ protocols.
All numeric values are encoded in network (big-endian) order.
Unless otherwise specified, all symmetric ciphers are DES in OFB
mode, with an IV of all 0 bytes. All asymmetric ciphers are RSA
with 1024-bit keys, and exponents of 65537.
Unless otherwise specified, all symmetric ciphers are 3DES in OFB
mode, with an IV of all 0 bytes. Asymmetric ciphers are either RSA
with 1024-bit keys and exponents of 65537, or DH with the safe prime
from rfc2409, section 6.2, whose hex representation is:
"FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFC90FDAA22168C234C4C6628B80DC1CD129024E08"
"8A67CC74020BBEA63B139B22514A08798E3404DDEF9519B3CD3A431B"
"302B0A6DF25F14374FE1356D6D51C245E485B576625E7EC6F44C42E9"
"A637ED6B0BFF5CB6F406B7EDEE386BFB5A899FA5AE9F24117C4B1FE6"
"49286651ECE65381FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF"
[We will move to AES once we can assume everybody will have it. -RD]
1. System overview
[Something to start with here. Do feel free to change/expand. -RD]
Tor is an implementation of version 2 of Onion Routing.
Onion Routing is a connection-oriented anonymizing communication
service. Users build a layered block of asymmetric encryptions
(an "onion") which describes a source-routed path through a set of
nodes. Those nodes build a "virtual circuit" through the network, in which
Tor is a connection-oriented anonymizing communication service. Users
build a path known as a "virtual circuit" through the network, in which
each node knows its predecessor and successor, but no others. Traffic
flowing down the circuit is unwrapped by a symmetric key at each node,
which reveals the downstream node.
......@@ -42,11 +43,12 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
2. Connections
2.1. Establishing OR-to-OR connections
2.1. Establishing OR connections
When one onion router opens a connection to another, the initiating
OR (called the 'client') and the listening OR (called the 'server')
perform the following handshake.
[or when an op wants to connect to or]
Before the handshake begins, the client and server know one
another's (1024-bit) public keys, IPV4 addresses, and ports.
......@@ -59,6 +61,7 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
The client then generates a 'Client authentication' message [M]
containing:
The number 2 to signify OR handshake [2 bytes]
The client's published IPV4 address [4 bytes]
The client's published port [2 bytes]
The server's published IPV4 address [4 bytes]
......@@ -66,19 +69,11 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
The forward key (K_f) [16 bytes]
The backward key (K_f) [16 bytes]
The maximum bandwidth (bytes/s) [4 bytes]
[Total: 48 bytes]
The client then RSA-encrypts the message with the server's
public key, and PKCS1 padding to given an encrypted message
[Commentary: 1024 bytes is probably too short, and this protocol can't
support IPv6. -NM]
[1024 is too short for a high-latency remailer; but perhaps it's
fine for us, given our need for speed and also given our greater
vulnerability to other attacks? Onions are infrequent enough now
that maybe we could handle it; but I worry it will impact
scalability, and handling more users is important.-RD]
[Total: 50 bytes]
The client then RSA-encrypts [M] with the server's public key
and PKCS1 padding to give an encrypted message.
The client then opens a TCP connection to the server, sends
the 128-byte RSA-encrypted data to the server, and waits for a
reply.
......@@ -88,7 +83,7 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
Upon receiving a TCP connection, the server waits to receive
128 bytes from the client. It decrypts the message with its
private key, and checks the PKCS1 padding. If the padding is
incorrect, or if the message's length is other than 32 bytes,
incorrect, or if the message's length is other than 50 bytes,
the server closes the TCP connection and stops handshaking.
The server then checks the list of known ORs for one with the
......@@ -119,7 +114,7 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
Once the client has received 128 bytes, it decrypts them with
its public key, and checks the PKCS1 padding. If the padding
is invalid, or the decrypted message's length is other than 40
is invalid, or the decrypted message's length is other than 56
bytes, the client closes the TCP connection.
The client checks that the addresses and keys in the reply
......@@ -155,6 +150,7 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
2.2. Establishing OP-to-OR connections
[wrap this with the above]
When an Onion Proxy (OP) needs to establish a connection to an OR,
the handshake is simpler because the OR does not need to verify the
OP's identity. The OP and OR establish the following steps:
......@@ -166,10 +162,11 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
[K_b] for the 'backward' stream from OR to OP).
The OP generates a message [M] in the following format:
Maximum bandwidth (bytes/s) [4 bytes]
Forward key [K_f] [16 bytes]
Backward key [K_b] [16 bytes]
[Total: 32 bytes]
The number 1 to signify OP handshake [2 bytes]
Maximum bandwidth (bytes/s) [4 bytes]
Forward key [K_f] [16 bytes]
Backward key [K_b] [16 bytes]
[Total: 38 bytes]
The OP encrypts M with the OR's public key and PKCS1 padding,
opens a TCP connection to the OR's TCP port, and sends the
......@@ -183,10 +180,10 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
and the op_port variable specified the OP port. -RD]
it waits for 128 bytes of data, and decrypts the resulting
data with its private key, checking the PKCS1 padding. If the
padding is invalid, or the message is not 20 bytes long, the
padding is invalid, or the message is not 38 bytes long, the
OR closes the connection.
Otherwise, the connection is established, and the O is ready
Otherwise, the connection is established, and the OR is ready
to receive cells.
The server sets its keys for this connection, setting K_f to
......@@ -236,19 +233,20 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
The 'Command' field holds one of the following values:
0 -- PADDING (Padding) (See Sec 6.2)
1 -- CREATE (Create a circuit) (See Sec 4)
2 -- DATA (End-to-end data) (See Sec 5)
3 -- DESTROY (Stop using a circuit) (See Sec 4)
4 -- SENDME (For flow control) (See Sec 6.1)
2 -- CREATED (Acknowledge create) (See Sec 4)
3 -- RELAY (End-to-end data) (See Sec 5)
4 -- DESTROY (Stop using a circuit) (See Sec 4)
The interpretation of 'Length' and 'Payload' depend on the type of
the cell.
PADDING: Length is 0; Payload is 248 bytes of 0's.
CREATE: Length is a value between 1 and 248; the first 'length'
bytes of payload contain a portion of an onion.
DATA: Length is a value between 4 and 248; the first 'length'
PADDING: Neither field is used.
CREATE: Length is 144; the payload contains the first phase of the
DH handshake.
CREATED: Length is 128; the payload contains the second phase of
the DH handshake.
RELAY: Length is a value between 8 and 248; the first 'length'
bytes of payload contain useful data.
DESTROY: Neither field is used.
SENDME: Length encodes a window size, payload is unused.
Unused fields are filled with 0 bytes. The payload is padded with
0 bytes.
......@@ -260,17 +258,24 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
CREATE and DESTROY cells are used to manage circuits; see section
4 below.
DATA cells are used to send commands and data along a circuit; see
RELAY cells are used to send commands and data along a circuit; see
section 5 below.
SENDME cells are used for flow control; see section 6 below.
4. Onions and circuit management
4. Circuit management
4.1. Setting up circuits
An onion is a multi-layered structure, with one layer for each node
in a circuit. Each (unencrypted) layer has the following fields:
Users set up circuits incrementally, one hop at a time. To create
a new circuit, users send a CREATE cell to the first node, with the
first half of the DH handshake; that node responds with a CREATED cell
with the second half of the DH handshake. To extend a circuit past
the first hop, the user sends an EXTEND relay cell (see section 5)
which instructs the last node in the circuit to send a CREATE cell
to extend the circuit.
CREATE cells contain the following:
[this stuff now wrong; haven't fixed the rest of the file either.]
Version [1 byte]
Port [2 bytes]
......@@ -279,8 +284,6 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
Key seed material [16 bytes]
[Total: 27 bytes]
The value of Version is currently 2.
The port and address field denote the IPV4 address and port of
the next onion router in the circuit, or are set to 0 for the
last hop.
......@@ -414,9 +417,9 @@ which reveals the downstream node.
Edge nodes process the length and payload fields of DATA cells as
described in section 5 below.
5. Application connections and topic management
5. Application connections and stream management
5.1. Topics and TCP streams
5.1. Streams
Within a circuit, the OP and the exit node use the contents of DATA
packets to tunnel TCP connections ("Topics") across circuits.
......
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