v3bwfile.py 17.7 KB
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Classes and functions that create the bandwidth measurements document
(v3bw) used by bandwidth authorities."""

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import copy
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import logging
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import os
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from statistics import median, mean
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from sbws import __version__
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from sbws.globals import SPEC_VERSION, BW_LINE_SIZE, SCALE_CONSTANT
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from sbws.lib.resultdump import ResultSuccess, _ResultType
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from sbws.util.filelock import DirectoryLock
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from sbws.util.timestamp import now_isodt_str, unixts_to_isodt_str
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from sbws.util.state import State
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log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

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LINE_SEP = '\n'
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KEYVALUE_SEP_V110 = '='
KEYVALUE_SEP_V200 = ' '
# List of the extra KeyValues accepted by the class
EXTRA_ARG_KEYVALUES = ['software', 'software_version', 'file_created',
                       'earliest_bandwidth', 'generator_started']
# List of all unordered KeyValues currently being used to generate the file
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UNORDERED_KEYVALUES = EXTRA_ARG_KEYVALUES + ['latest_bandwidth']
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# List of all the KeyValues currently being used to generate the file
ALL_KEYVALUES = ['version'] + UNORDERED_KEYVALUES
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TERMINATOR = '===='
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# Num header lines in v1.1.0 using all the KeyValues
NUM_LINES_HEADER_V110 = len(ALL_KEYVALUES) + 2
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LINE_TERMINATOR = TERMINATOR + LINE_SEP

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# KeyValue separator in Bandwidth Lines
BW_KEYVALUE_SEP_V110 = ' '
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# not inclding in the files the extra bws for now
BW_KEYVALUES_BASIC = ['node_id', 'bw']
BW_KEYVALUES_FILE = BW_KEYVALUES_BASIC + \
                    ['master_key_ed25519', 'nick', 'rtt', 'time',
                     'success', 'error_stream', 'error_circ', 'error_misc']
BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA_BWS = ['bw_bs_median', 'bw_bs_mean', 'desc_avg_bw_bs']
BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA = BW_KEYVALUES_FILE + BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA_BWS
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BW_KEYVALUES_INT = ['bw', 'rtt', 'success', 'error_stream',
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                    'error_circ', 'error_misc'] + BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA_BWS
BW_KEYVALUES = BW_KEYVALUES_BASIC + BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA
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def num_results_of_type(results, type_str):
    return len([r for r in results if r.type == type_str])


# Better way to use enums?
def result_type_to_key(type_str):
    return type_str.replace('-', '_')


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class V3BWHeader(object):
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    """
    Create a bandwidth measurements (V3bw) header
    following bandwidth measurements document spec version 1.1.0.

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    :param str timestamp: timestamp in Unix Epoch seconds of the most recent
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        generator result.
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    :param str version: the spec version
    :param str software: the name of the software that generates this
    :param str software_version: the version of the software
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    :param dict kwargs: extra headers. Currently supported:
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        - earliest_bandwidth: str, ISO 8601 timestamp in UTC time zone
          when the first bandwidth was obtained
        - generator_started: str, ISO 8601 timestamp in UTC time zone
          when the generator started
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    """
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    def __init__(self, timestamp, **kwargs):
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        assert isinstance(timestamp, str)
        for v in kwargs.values():
            assert isinstance(v, str)
        self.timestamp = timestamp
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        # KeyValues with default value when not given by kwargs
        self.version = kwargs.get('version', SPEC_VERSION)
        self.software = kwargs.get('software', 'sbws')
        self.software_version = kwargs.get('software_version', __version__)
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        self.file_created = kwargs.get('file_created', now_isodt_str())
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        # latest_bandwidth should not be in kwargs, since it MUST be the
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        # same as timestamp
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        self.latest_bandwidth = unixts_to_isodt_str(timestamp)
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        [setattr(self, k, v) for k, v in kwargs.items()
         if k in EXTRA_ARG_KEYVALUES]
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    def __str__(self):
        if self.version == '1.1.0':
            return self.strv110
        return self.strv200

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    @classmethod
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    def from_results(cls, results, state_fpath=''):
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        kwargs = dict()
        latest_bandwidth = cls.latest_bandwidth_from_results(results)
        earliest_bandwidth = cls.earliest_bandwidth_from_results(results)
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        generator_started = cls.generator_started_from_file(state_fpath)
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        timestamp = str(latest_bandwidth)
        kwargs['latest_bandwidth'] = unixts_to_isodt_str(latest_bandwidth)
        kwargs['earliest_bandwidth'] = unixts_to_isodt_str(earliest_bandwidth)
        if generator_started is not None:
            kwargs['generator_started'] = generator_started
        h = cls(timestamp, **kwargs)
        return h

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    @classmethod
    def from_lines_v110(cls, lines):
        """
        :param list lines: list of lines to parse
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        :returns: tuple of V3BWHeader object and non-header lines
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        """
        assert isinstance(lines, list)
        try:
            index_terminator = lines.index(TERMINATOR)
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        except ValueError:
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            # is not a bw file or is v100
            log.warn('Terminator is not in lines')
            return None
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        ts = lines[0]
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        kwargs = dict([l.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V110)
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                       for l in lines[:index_terminator]
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                       if l.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V110)[0] in ALL_KEYVALUES])
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        h = cls(ts, **kwargs)
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        # last line is new line
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        return h, lines[index_terminator + 1:-1]
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    @classmethod
    def from_text_v110(self, text):
        """
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        :param str text: text to parse
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        :returns: tuple of V3BWHeader object and non-header lines
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        """
        assert isinstance(text, str)
        return self.from_lines_v110(text.split(LINE_SEP))
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    @staticmethod
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    def generator_started_from_file(state_fpath):
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        '''
        ISO formatted timestamp for the time when the scanner process most
        recently started.
        '''
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        state = State(state_fpath)
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        if 'scanner_started' in state:
            return state['scanner_started']
        else:
            return None
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    @staticmethod
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    def latest_bandwidth_from_results(results):
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        return round(max([r.time for fp in results for r in results[fp]]))
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    @staticmethod
    def earliest_bandwidth_from_results(results):
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        return round(min([r.time for fp in results for r in results[fp]]))
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    @property
    def keyvalue_unordered_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of KeyValue tuples that do not have specific order."""
        # sort the list to generate determinist headers
        keyvalue_tuple_ls = sorted([(k, v) for k, v in self.__dict__.items()
                                    if k in UNORDERED_KEYVALUES])
        return keyvalue_tuple_ls

    @property
    def keyvalue_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of all KeyValue tuples"""
        return [('version', self.version)] + self.keyvalue_unordered_tuple_ls

    @property
    def keyvalue_v110str_ls(self):
        """Return KeyValue list of strings following spec v1.1.0."""
        keyvalues = [self.timestamp] + [KEYVALUE_SEP_V110.join([k, v])
                                        for k, v in self.keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return keyvalues

    @property
    def strv110(self):
        """Return header string following spec v1.1.0."""
        header_str = LINE_SEP.join(self.keyvalue_v110str_ls) + LINE_SEP + \
            LINE_TERMINATOR
        return header_str

    @property
    def keyvalue_v200_ls(self):
        """Return KeyValue list of strings following spec v2.0.0."""
        keyvalue = [self.timestamp] + [KEYVALUE_SEP_V200.join([k, v])
                                       for k, v in self.keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return keyvalue

    @property
    def strv200(self):
        """Return header string following spec v2.0.0."""
        header_str = LINE_SEP.join(self.keyvalue_v200_ls) + LINE_SEP + \
            LINE_TERMINATOR
        return header_str

    @property
    def num_lines(self):
        return len(self.__str__().split(LINE_SEP))
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class V3BWLine(object):
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    """
    Create a Bandwidth List line following the spec version 1.1.0.

    :param str node_id:
    :param int bw:
    :param dict kwargs: extra headers. Currently supported:

        - nickname, str
        - master_key_ed25519, str
        - rtt, int
        - time, str
        - sucess, int
        - error_stream, int
        - error_circ, int
        - error_misc, int
    """
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    def __init__(self, node_id, bw, **kwargs):
        assert isinstance(node_id, str)
        assert isinstance(bw, int)
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        assert node_id.startswith('$')
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        self.node_id = node_id
        self.bw = bw
        [setattr(self, k, v) for k, v in kwargs.items()
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         if k in BW_KEYVALUES_EXTRA]
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    def __str__(self):
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        return self.bw_strv110

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    @classmethod
    def from_results(cls, results):
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        """Convert sbws results to relays' Bandwidth Lines

        ``bs`` stands for Bytes/seconds
        ``bw_bs_mean`` means the bw is obtained from the mean of the all the
        downloads' bandwidth.
        Downloads' bandwidth are calculated as the amount of data received
        divided by the the time it took to received.
        bw = data (Bytes) / time (seconds)
        """
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        success_results = [r for r in results if isinstance(r, ResultSuccess)]
        node_id = '$' + results[0].fingerprint
        kwargs = dict()
        kwargs['nick'] = results[0].nickname
        if getattr(results[0], 'master_key_ed25519'):
            kwargs['master_key_ed25519'] = results[0].master_key_ed25519
        kwargs['time'] = cls.last_time_from_results(results)
        kwargs.update(cls.result_types_from_results(results))
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        # useful args for scaling
        if success_results:
            # the most recent should be the last
            kwargs['desc_avg_bw_bs'] = \
                success_results[-1].relay_average_bandwidth
            kwargs['rtt'] = cls.rtt_from_results(success_results)
            bw = cls.bw_bs_median_from_results(success_results)
            kwargs['bw_bs_mean'] = cls.bw_bs_mean_from_results(success_results)
            kwargs['bw_bs_median'] = cls.bw_bs_median_from_results(
                success_results)
            bwl = cls(node_id, bw, **kwargs)
            return bwl
        return None
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    @classmethod
    def from_data(cls, data, fingerprint):
        assert fingerprint in data
        return cls.from_results(data[fingerprint])

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    @classmethod
    def from_bw_line_v110(cls, line):
        assert isinstance(line, str)
        kwargs = dict([kv.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V110)
                       for kv in line.split(BW_KEYVALUE_SEP_V110)
                       if kv.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V110)[0] in BW_KEYVALUES])
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        for k, v in kwargs.items():
            if k in BW_KEYVALUES_INT:
                kwargs[k] = int(v)
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        node_id = kwargs['node_id']
        bw = kwargs['bw']
        del kwargs['node_id']
        del kwargs['bw']
        bw_line = cls(node_id, bw, **kwargs)
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        return bw_line

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    @staticmethod
    def bw_bs_median_from_results(results):
        return max(round(median([dl['amount'] / dl['duration']
                                 for r in results for dl in r.downloads])), 1)

    @staticmethod
    def bw_bs_mean_from_results(results):
        return max(round(mean([dl['amount'] / dl['duration']
                               for r in results for dl in r.downloads])), 1)

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    @staticmethod
    def last_time_from_results(results):
        return unixts_to_isodt_str(round(max([r.time for r in results])))

    @staticmethod
    def rtt_from_results(results):
        # convert from miliseconds to seconds
        rtts = [(round(rtt * 1000)) for r in results for rtt in r.rtts]
        rtt = round(median(rtts))
        return rtt

    @staticmethod
    def result_types_from_results(results):
        rt_dict = dict([(result_type_to_key(rt.value),
                         num_results_of_type(results, rt.value))
                        for rt in _ResultType])
        return rt_dict

    @property
    def bw_keyvalue_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of KeyValue Bandwidth Line tuples."""
        # sort the list to generate determinist headers
        keyvalue_tuple_ls = sorted([(k, v) for k, v in self.__dict__.items()
                                    if k in BW_KEYVALUES])
        return keyvalue_tuple_ls
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    @property
    def bw_keyvalue_v110str_ls(self):
        """Return list of KeyValue Bandwidth Line strings following
        spec v1.1.0.
        """
        bw_keyvalue_str = [KEYVALUE_SEP_V110 .join([k, str(v)])
                           for k, v in self.bw_keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return bw_keyvalue_str
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    @property
    def bw_strv110(self):
        """Return Bandwidth Line string following spec v1.1.0."""
        bw_line_str = BW_KEYVALUE_SEP_V110.join(
                        self.bw_keyvalue_v110str_ls) + LINE_SEP
        if len(bw_line_str) > BW_LINE_SIZE:
            # if this is the case, probably there are too many KeyValues,
            # or the limit needs to be changed in Tor
            log.warn("The bandwidth line %s is longer than %s",
                     len(bw_line_str), BW_LINE_SIZE)
        return bw_line_str
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class V3BWFile(object):
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    """
    Create a Bandwidth List file following spec version 1.1.0

    :param V3BWHeader v3bwheader: header
    :param list v3bwlines: V3BWLines
    """
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    def __init__(self, v3bwheader, v3bwlines):
        self.header = v3bwheader
        self.bw_lines = v3bwlines

    def __str__(self):
        return str(self.header) + ''.join([str(bw_line)
                                           for bw_line in self.bw_lines])

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    @classmethod
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    def from_results(cls, results, state_fpath='',
                     scale_constant=None):
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        bw_lines = [V3BWLine.from_results(results[fp]) for fp in results]
        bw_lines = sorted(bw_lines, key=lambda d: d.bw, reverse=True)
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        if scale_constant is not None:
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            bw_lines = cls.bw_sbws_scale(bw_lines, scale_constant)
            cls.warn_if_not_accurate_enough(bw_lines, scale_constant)
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        else:
            bw_lines = cls.bw_kb(bw_lines)
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        header = V3BWHeader.from_results(results, state_fpath)
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        f = cls(header, bw_lines)
        return f

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    @staticmethod
    def bw_kb(bw_lines, reverse=False):
        bw_lines_scaled = copy.deepcopy(bw_lines)
        for l in bw_lines_scaled:
            l.bw = max(round(l.bw / 1000), 1)
        return sorted(bw_lines_scaled, key=lambda x: x.bw, reverse=reverse)

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    @staticmethod
    def bw_sbws_scale(bw_lines, scale_constant=SCALE_CONSTANT,
                      reverse=False):
        """Return a new V3BwLine list scaled using sbws method.

        :param list bw_lines:
            bw lines to scale, not self.bw_lines,
            since this method will be before self.bw_lines have been
            initialized.
        :param int scale_constant:
            the constant to multiply by the ratio and
            the bandwidth to obtain the new bandwidth
        :returns list: V3BwLine list
        """
        # If a relay has MaxAdvertisedBandwidth set, they may be capable of
        # some large amount of bandwidth but prefer if they didn't receive it.
        # We also could have managed to measure them faster than their
        # {,Relay}BandwidthRate somehow.
        #
        # See https://github.com/pastly/simple-bw-scanner/issues/155 and
        # https://trac.torproject.org/projects/tor/ticket/8494
        #
        # Note how this isn't some measured-by-us average of bandwidth. It's
        # the first value on the 'bandwidth' line in the relay's server
        # descriptor.
        log.debug('Scaling bandwidth using sbws method.')
        m = median([l.bw for l in bw_lines])
        bw_lines_scaled = copy.deepcopy(bw_lines)
        for l in bw_lines_scaled:
            # min is to limit the bw to descriptor average-bandwidth
            # max to avoid bandwidth with 0 value
            l.bw = max(round(min(l.desc_avg_bw_bs,
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                                 l.bw * scale_constant / m)
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                             / 1000), 1)
        return sorted(bw_lines_scaled, key=lambda x: x.bw, reverse=reverse)

    @staticmethod
    def warn_if_not_accurate_enough(bw_lines,
                                    scale_constant=SCALE_CONSTANT):
        margin = 0.001
        accuracy_ratio = median([l.bw for l in bw_lines]) / scale_constant
        log.info('The generated lines are within {:.5}% of what they should '
                 'be'.format((1 - accuracy_ratio) * 100))
        if accuracy_ratio < 1 - margin or accuracy_ratio > 1 + margin:
            log.warning('There was %f%% error and only +/- %f%% is '
                        'allowed', (1 - accuracy_ratio) * 100, margin * 100)

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    @property
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    def sum_bw(self):
        return sum([l.bw for l in self.bw_lines])
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    @property
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    def num(self):
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        return len(self.bw_lines)

    @property
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    def mean_bw(self):
        return mean([l.bw for l in self.bw_lines])

    @property
    def median_bw(self):
        return median([l.bw for l in self.bw_lines])
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    def write(self, output):
        if output == '/dev/stdout':
            log.info("Writing to stdout is not supported.")
            return
        log.info('Writing v3bw file to %s', output)
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        # To avoid inconsistent reads, the bandwidth data is written to an
        # archive path, then atomically symlinked to 'latest.v3bw'
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        out_dir = os.path.dirname(output)
        out_link = os.path.join(out_dir, 'latest.v3bw')
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        out_link_tmp = out_link + '.tmp'
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        with DirectoryLock(out_dir):
            with open(output, 'wt') as fd:
                fd.write(str(self.header))
                for line in self.bw_lines:
                    fd.write(str(line))
            output_basename = os.path.basename(output)
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            # To atomically symlink a file, we need to create a temporary link,
            # then rename it to the final link name. (POSIX guarantees that
            # rename is atomic.)
            log.debug('Creating symlink {} -> {}.'
                      .format(out_link_tmp, output_basename))
            os.symlink(output_basename, out_link_tmp)
            log.debug('Renaming symlink {} -> {} to {} -> {}.'
                      .format(out_link_tmp, output_basename,
                              out_link, output_basename))
            os.rename(out_link_tmp, out_link)