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v3bwfile.py 62.4 KB
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Classes and functions that create the bandwidth measurements document
(v3bw) used by bandwidth authorities."""

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import copy
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import logging
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import math
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import os
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from itertools import combinations
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from statistics import median, mean
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from stem.descriptor import parse_file
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from sbws import __version__
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from sbws.globals import (SPEC_VERSION, BW_LINE_SIZE, SBWS_SCALE_CONSTANT,
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                          TORFLOW_SCALING, SBWS_SCALING, TORFLOW_BW_MARGIN,
                          TORFLOW_OBS_LAST, TORFLOW_OBS_MEAN,
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                          PROP276_ROUND_DIG, MIN_REPORT, MAX_BW_DIFF_PERC)
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from sbws.lib import scaling
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from sbws.lib.resultdump import ResultSuccess, _ResultType
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from sbws.util.filelock import DirectoryLock
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from sbws.util.timestamp import (now_isodt_str, unixts_to_isodt_str,
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                                 now_unixts, isostr_to_dt_obj,
                                 dt_obj_to_isodt_str)
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from sbws.util.state import State
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log = logging.getLogger(__name__)

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LINE_SEP = '\n'
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KEYVALUE_SEP_V1 = '='
KEYVALUE_SEP_V2 = ' '
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# NOTE: in a future refactor make make all the KeyValues be a dictionary
# with their type, so that it's more similar to stem parser.

# Header KeyValues
# =================
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# KeyValues that need to be in a specific order in the Bandwidth File.
HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_ORDERED = ['version']
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# KeyValues that are not initialized from the state file nor the measurements.
# They can also be pass as an argument to `Header` to overwrite default values,
# what is done in unit tests.
# `latest bandwidth` is special cause it gets its value from timestamp, which
# is not a KeyValue, but it's always pass as an agument.
# It could be separaed in other list, but so far there is no need, cause:
# 1. when it's pass to the Header to initialize it, it's just ignored.
# 2. when the file is created, it's took into account.
HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_SELF_INITIALIZED = [
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    "software",
    "software_version",
    "file_created",
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    "latest_bandwidth",
]
# KeyValues that are initialized from arguments.
HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_TO_INIT = [
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    "earliest_bandwidth",
    "generator_started",
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]

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# number_eligible_relays is the number that ends in the bandwidth file
# ie, have not been excluded by one of the filters in 4. below
# They should be call recent_measurement_included_count to be congruent
# with the other KeyValues.
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HEADER_KEYS_V1_2 = [
    "number_eligible_relays",
    "minimum_number_eligible_relays",
    "number_consensus_relays",
    "percent_eligible_relays",
    "minimum_percent_eligible_relays",
]
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# KeyValues added in the Bandwidth File v1.3.0
HEADER_KEYS_V1_3 = [
    "scanner_country",
    "destinations_countries",
]

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# KeyValues that count the number of relays that are in the bandwidth file,
# but ignored by Tor when voting, because they do not have a
# measured bandwidth.
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HEADER_RECENT_MEASUREMENTS_EXCLUDED_KEYS = [
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    # Number of relays that were measured but all the measurements failed
    # because of network failures or it was
    # not found a suitable helper relay
    'recent_measurements_excluded_error_count',
    # Number of relays that have successful measurements but the measurements
    # were not away from each other in X time (by default 1 day).
    'recent_measurements_excluded_near_count',
    # Number of relays that have successful measurements and they are away from
    # each other but they are not X time recent.
    # By default this is 5 days, which is the same time the older
    # the measurements can be by default.
    'recent_measurements_excluded_old_count',
    # Number of relays that have successful measurements and they are away from
    # each other and recent
    # but the number of measurements are less than X (by default 2).
    'recent_measurements_excluded_few_count',
]
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# Added in #29591
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# NOTE: recent_consensus_count, recent_priority_list_count,
# recent_measurement_attempt_count and recent_priority_relay_count
# are not reset when the scanner is stop.
# They will accumulate the values since the scanner was ever started.
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HEADER_KEYS_V1_4 = [
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    # 1.1 header: the number of different consensuses, that sbws has seen,
    # since the last 5 days
    'recent_consensus_count',
    # 2.4 Number of times a priority list has been created
    'recent_priority_list_count',
    # 2.5 Number of relays that there were in a priority list
    # [50, number of relays in the network * 0.05]
    'recent_priority_relay_count',
    # 3.6 header: the number of times that sbws has tried to measure any relay,
    # since the last 5 days
    # This would be the number of times a relays were in a priority list
    'recent_measurement_attempt_count',
    # 3.7 header: the number of times that sbws has tried to measure any relay,
    # since the last 5 days, but it didn't work
    # This should be the number of attempts - number of ResultSuccess -
    # something else we don't know yet
    # So far is the number of ResultError
    'recent_measurement_failure_count',
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    # The time it took to report about half of the network.
    'time_to_report_half_network',
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] + HEADER_RECENT_MEASUREMENTS_EXCLUDED_KEYS
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# KeyValues added in the Bandwidth File v1.5.0
# XXX: Change SPEC_VERSION when all the v1.5.0 keys are added, before a new
# sbws release.
# Tor version will be obtained from the state file, so it won't be pass as an
# argument, but will be self-initialized.
HEADER_KEYS_V1_5_TO_INIT = ['tor_version']
HEADER_KEYS_V1_5 = HEADER_KEYS_V1_5_TO_INIT

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# KeyValues that are initialized from arguments, not self-initialized.
HEADER_INIT_KEYS = (
    HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_TO_INIT
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_3
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_2
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    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_4
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    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_5_TO_INIT
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)
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HEADER_INT_KEYS = HEADER_KEYS_V1_2 + HEADER_KEYS_V1_4
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# List of all unordered KeyValues currently being used to generate the file
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HEADER_UNORDERED_KEYS = (
    HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_SELF_INITIALIZED
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_TO_INIT
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_3
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_2
    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_4
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    + HEADER_KEYS_V1_5
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)
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# List of all the KeyValues currently being used to generate the file
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HEADER_ALL_KEYS = HEADER_KEYS_V1_1_ORDERED + HEADER_UNORDERED_KEYS
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TERMINATOR = '====='
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# Bandwidth Lines KeyValues
# =========================
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# Num header lines in v1.X.X using all the KeyValues
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NUM_LINES_HEADER_V1 = len(HEADER_ALL_KEYS) + 2
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LINE_TERMINATOR = TERMINATOR + LINE_SEP

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# KeyValue separator in Bandwidth Lines
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BWLINE_KEYVALUES_SEP_V1 = ' '
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# not inclding in the files the extra bws for now
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BWLINE_KEYS_V0 = ['node_id', 'bw']
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BWLINE_KEYS_V1_1 = [
    "master_key_ed25519",
    "nick",
    "rtt",
    "time",
    "success",
    "error_stream",
    "error_circ",
    "error_misc",
    # Added in #292951
    "error_second_relay",
    "error_destination",
]
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BWLINE_KEYS_V1_2 = [
    "bw_median",
    "bw_mean",
    "desc_bw_avg",
    "desc_bw_bur",
    "desc_bw_obs_last",
    "desc_bw_obs_mean",
    "consensus_bandwidth",
    "consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured",
]
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# There were no bandwidth lines key added in the specification version 1.3

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# Added in #292951
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BWLINE_KEYS_V1_4 = [
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    # 1.2 relay: the number of different consensuses, that sbws has seen,
    # since the last 5 days, that have this relay
    'relay_in_recent_consensus_count',
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    # 2.6 relay: the number of times a relay was "prioritized" to be measured
    # in the recent days (by default 5).
    'relay_recent_priority_list_count',
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    # 3.8 relay:  the number of times that sbws has tried to measure
    # this relay, since the last 5 days
    # This would be the number of times a relay was in a priority list (2.6)
    # since once it gets measured, it either returns ResultError,
    # ResultSuccess or something else happened that we don't know yet
    'relay_recent_measurement_attempt_count',
    # 3.9 relay:  the number of times that sbws has tried to measure
    # this relay, since the last 5 days, but it didn't work
    # This should be the number of attempts - number of ResultSuccess -
    # something else we don't know yet
    # So far is the number of ResultError
    'relay_recent_measurement_failure_count',
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    # Number of error results created in the last 5 days that are excluded.
    # This is the sum of all the errors.
    'relay_recent_measurements_excluded_error_count',
    # The number of successful results, created in the last 5 days,
    # that were excluded by a rule, for this relay.
    # 'relay_recent_measurements_excluded_error_count' would be the
    # sum of the following 3 + the number of error results.

    # The number of successful measurements that are not X time away
    # from each other (by default 1 day).
    'relay_recent_measurements_excluded_near_count',
    # The number of successful measurements that are away from each other
    # but not X time recent (by default 5 days).
    'relay_recent_measurements_excluded_old_count',
    # The number of measurements excluded because they are not at least X
    # (by default 2).
    'relay_recent_measurements_excluded_few_count',
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    # `vote=0` is used for the relays that were excluded to
    # be reported in the bandwidth file and now they are
    # reported.
    # It tells Tor to do not vote on the relay.
    # `unmeasured=1` is used for the same relays and it is
    # added in case Tor would vote on them in future versions.
    # Maybe these keys should not be included for the relays
    # in which vote=1 and unmeasured=0.
    'vote', 'unmeasured',
    # When there not enough eligible relays (not excluded)
    # under_min_report is 1, `vote` is 0.
    # Added in #29853.
    'under_min_report',
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]
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BWLINE_KEYS_V1 = BWLINE_KEYS_V0 + BWLINE_KEYS_V1_1 + BWLINE_KEYS_V1_2 \
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               + BWLINE_KEYS_V1_4
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# NOTE: tech-debt: assign boolean type to vote and unmeasured,
# when the attributes are defined with a type, as stem does.
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BWLINE_INT_KEYS = (
    [
        "bw",
        "rtt",
        "success",
        "error_stream",
        "error_circ",
        "error_misc",
    ]
    + BWLINE_KEYS_V1_2
    + BWLINE_KEYS_V1_4
)
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def round_sig_dig(n, digits=PROP276_ROUND_DIG):
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    """Round n to 'digits' significant digits in front of the decimal point.
       Results less than or equal to 1 are rounded to 1.
       Returns an integer.

       digits must be greater than 0.
       n must be less than or equal to 2**73, to avoid floating point errors.
       """
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    digits = int(digits)
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    assert digits >= 1
    if n <= 1:
        return 1
    digits_in_n = int(math.log10(n)) + 1
    round_digits = max(digits_in_n - digits, 0)
    rounded_n = round(n, -round_digits)
    return int(rounded_n)


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def kb_round_x_sig_dig(bw_bs, digits=PROP276_ROUND_DIG):
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    """Convert bw_bs from bytes to kilobytes, and round the result to
       'digits' significant digits.
       Results less than or equal to 1 are rounded up to 1.
       Returns an integer.

       digits must be greater than 0.
       n must be less than or equal to 2**82, to avoid floating point errors.
       """
    # avoid double-rounding by using floating-point
    bw_kb = bw_bs / 1000.0
    return round_sig_dig(bw_kb, digits=digits)
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def num_results_of_type(results, type_str):
    return len([r for r in results if r.type == type_str])


# Better way to use enums?
def result_type_to_key(type_str):
    return type_str.replace('-', '_')


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class V3BWHeader(object):
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    """
    Create a bandwidth measurements (V3bw) header
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    following bandwidth measurements document spec version 1.X.X.
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    :param str timestamp: timestamp in Unix Epoch seconds of the most recent
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        generator result.
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    :param str version: the spec version
    :param str software: the name of the software that generates this
    :param str software_version: the version of the software
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    :param dict kwargs: extra headers. Currently supported:
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        - earliest_bandwidth: str, ISO 8601 timestamp in UTC time zone
          when the first bandwidth was obtained
        - generator_started: str, ISO 8601 timestamp in UTC time zone
          when the generator started
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    """
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    def __init__(self, timestamp, **kwargs):
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        assert isinstance(timestamp, str)
        for v in kwargs.values():
            assert isinstance(v, str)
        self.timestamp = timestamp
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        # KeyValues with default value when not given by kwargs
        self.version = kwargs.get('version', SPEC_VERSION)
        self.software = kwargs.get('software', 'sbws')
        self.software_version = kwargs.get('software_version', __version__)
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        self.file_created = kwargs.get('file_created', now_isodt_str())
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        # latest_bandwidth should not be in kwargs, since it MUST be the
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        # same as timestamp
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        self.latest_bandwidth = unixts_to_isodt_str(timestamp)
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        [setattr(self, k, v) for k, v in kwargs.items()
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         if k in HEADER_INIT_KEYS]
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    def __str__(self):
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        if self.version.startswith('1.'):
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            return self.strv1
        return self.strv2
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    @classmethod
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    def from_results(cls, results, scanner_country=None,
                     destinations_countries=None, state_fpath=''):
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        kwargs = dict()
        latest_bandwidth = cls.latest_bandwidth_from_results(results)
        earliest_bandwidth = cls.earliest_bandwidth_from_results(results)
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        # NOTE: Blocking, reads file
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        generator_started = cls.generator_started_from_file(state_fpath)
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        recent_consensus_count = cls.consensus_count_from_file(state_fpath)
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        timestamp = str(latest_bandwidth)
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        # XXX: tech-debt: obtain the other values from the state file using
        # this state variable.
        # Store the state as an attribute of the object?
        state = State(state_fpath)
        tor_version = state.get('tor_version', None)
        if tor_version:
            kwargs['tor_version'] = tor_version

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        kwargs['latest_bandwidth'] = unixts_to_isodt_str(latest_bandwidth)
        kwargs['earliest_bandwidth'] = unixts_to_isodt_str(earliest_bandwidth)
        if generator_started is not None:
            kwargs['generator_started'] = generator_started
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        # To be compatible with older bandwidth files, do not require it.
        if scanner_country is not None:
            kwargs['scanner_country'] = scanner_country
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        if destinations_countries is not None:
            kwargs['destinations_countries'] = destinations_countries
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        if recent_consensus_count is not None:
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            kwargs['recent_consensus_count'] = recent_consensus_count
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        recent_measurement_attempt_count = \
            cls.recent_measurement_attempt_count_from_file(state_fpath)
        if recent_measurement_attempt_count is not None:
            kwargs['recent_measurement_attempt_count'] = \
                str(recent_measurement_attempt_count)

        # If it is a failure that is not a ResultError, then
        # failures = attempts - all mesaurements
        # Works only in the case that old measurements files already had
        # measurements count
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        # If this is None or 0, the failures can't be calculated
        if recent_measurement_attempt_count:
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            all_measurements = 0
            for result_list in results.values():
                all_measurements += len(result_list)
            measurement_failures = (recent_measurement_attempt_count
                                    - all_measurements)
            kwargs['recent_measurement_failure_count'] = \
                str(measurement_failures)

        priority_lists = cls.recent_priority_list_count_from_file(state_fpath)
        if priority_lists is not None:
            kwargs['recent_priority_list_count'] = str(priority_lists)

        priority_relays = \
            cls.recent_priority_relay_count_from_file(state_fpath)
        if priority_relays is not None:
            kwargs['recent_priority_relay_count'] = str(priority_relays)

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        h = cls(timestamp, **kwargs)
        return h

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    @classmethod
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    def from_lines_v1(cls, lines):
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        """
        :param list lines: list of lines to parse
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        :returns: tuple of V3BWHeader object and non-header lines
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        """
        assert isinstance(lines, list)
        try:
            index_terminator = lines.index(TERMINATOR)
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        except ValueError:
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            # is not a bw file or is v100
            log.warn('Terminator is not in lines')
            return None
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        ts = lines[0]
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        kwargs = dict([l.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V1)
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                       for l in lines[:index_terminator]
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                       if l.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V1)[0] in HEADER_ALL_KEYS])
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        h = cls(ts, **kwargs)
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        # last line is new line
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        return h, lines[index_terminator + 1:-1]
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    @classmethod
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    def from_text_v1(self, text):
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        """
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        :param str text: text to parse
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        :returns: tuple of V3BWHeader object and non-header lines
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        """
        assert isinstance(text, str)
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        return self.from_lines_v1(text.split(LINE_SEP))
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    @classmethod
    def from_lines_v100(cls, lines):
        """
        :param list lines: list of lines to parse
        :returns: tuple of V3BWHeader object and non-header lines
        """
        assert isinstance(lines, list)
        h = cls(lines[0])
        # last line is new line
        return h, lines[1:-1]

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    @staticmethod
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    def generator_started_from_file(state_fpath):
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        '''
        ISO formatted timestamp for the time when the scanner process most
        recently started.
        '''
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        state = State(state_fpath)
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        if 'scanner_started' in state:
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            # From v1.1.0-dev `state` is capable of converting strs to datetime
            return dt_obj_to_isodt_str(state['scanner_started'])
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        else:
            return None
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    @staticmethod
    def consensus_count_from_file(state_fpath):
        state = State(state_fpath)
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        count = state.count("recent_consensus")
        if count:
            return str(count)
        return None
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    # NOTE: in future refactor store state in the class
    @staticmethod
    def recent_measurement_attempt_count_from_file(state_fpath):
        """
        Returns the number of times any relay was queued to be measured
        in the recent (by default 5) days from the state file.
        """
        state = State(state_fpath)
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        return state.count('recent_measurement_attempt')
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    @staticmethod
    def recent_priority_list_count_from_file(state_fpath):
        """
        Returns the number of times
        :meth:`~sbws.lib.relayprioritizer.RelayPrioritizer.best_priority`
        was run
        in the recent (by default 5) days from the state file.
        """
        state = State(state_fpath)
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        return state.count('recent_priority_list')
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    @staticmethod
    def recent_priority_relay_count_from_file(state_fpath):
        """
        Returns the number of times any relay was "prioritized" to be measured
        in the recent (by default 5) days from the state file.
        """
        state = State(state_fpath)
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        return state.count('recent_priority_relay')
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    @staticmethod
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    def latest_bandwidth_from_results(results):
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        return round(max([r.time for fp in results for r in results[fp]]))
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    @staticmethod
    def earliest_bandwidth_from_results(results):
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        return round(min([r.time for fp in results for r in results[fp]]))
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    @property
    def keyvalue_unordered_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of KeyValue tuples that do not have specific order."""
        # sort the list to generate determinist headers
        keyvalue_tuple_ls = sorted([(k, v) for k, v in self.__dict__.items()
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                                    if k in HEADER_UNORDERED_KEYS])
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        return keyvalue_tuple_ls

    @property
    def keyvalue_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of all KeyValue tuples"""
        return [('version', self.version)] + self.keyvalue_unordered_tuple_ls

    @property
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    def keyvalue_v1str_ls(self):
        """Return KeyValue list of strings following spec v1.X.X."""
        keyvalues = [self.timestamp] + [KEYVALUE_SEP_V1.join([k, v])
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                                        for k, v in self.keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return keyvalues

    @property
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    def strv1(self):
        """Return header string following spec v1.X.X."""
        header_str = LINE_SEP.join(self.keyvalue_v1str_ls) + LINE_SEP + \
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            LINE_TERMINATOR
        return header_str

    @property
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    def keyvalue_v2_ls(self):
        """Return KeyValue list of strings following spec v2.X.X."""
        keyvalue = [self.timestamp] + [KEYVALUE_SEP_V2.join([k, v])
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                                       for k, v in self.keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return keyvalue

    @property
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    def strv2(self):
        """Return header string following spec v2.X.X."""
        header_str = LINE_SEP.join(self.keyvalue_v2_ls) + LINE_SEP + \
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            LINE_TERMINATOR
        return header_str

    @property
    def num_lines(self):
        return len(self.__str__().split(LINE_SEP))
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    def add_stats(self, **kwargs):
        # Using kwargs because attributes might chage.
        [setattr(self, k, str(v)) for k, v in kwargs.items()
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         if k in HEADER_KEYS_V1_2]
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    def add_time_report_half_network(self):
        """Add to the header the time it took to measure half of the network.

        It is not the time the scanner actually takes on measuring all the
        network, but the ``number_eligible_relays`` that are reported in the
        bandwidth file and directory authorities will vote on.

        This is calculated for half of the network, so that failed or not
        reported relays do not affect too much.

        For instance, if there are 6500 relays in the network, half of the
        network would be 3250. And if there were 4000 eligible relays
        measured in an interval of 3 days, the time to measure half of the
        network would be 3 days * 3250 / 4000.

        Since the elapsed time is calculated from the earliest and the
        latest measurement and a relay might have more than 2 measurements,
        this would give an estimate on how long it would take to measure
        the network including all the valid measurements.

        Log also an estimated on how long it would take with the current
        number of relays included in the bandwidth file.
        """
        # NOTE: in future refactor do not convert attributes to str until
        # writing to the file, so that they do not need to be converted back
        # to do some calculations.
        elapsed_time = (
            (isostr_to_dt_obj(self.latest_bandwidth)
             - isostr_to_dt_obj(self.earliest_bandwidth))
            .total_seconds())

        # This attributes were added later and some tests that
        # do not initialize them would fail.
        eligible_relays = int(getattr(self, 'number_eligible_relays', 0))
        consensus_relays = int(getattr(self, 'number_consensus_relays', 0))
        if not(eligible_relays and consensus_relays):
            return

        half_network = consensus_relays / 2
        # Calculate the time it would take to measure half of the network
        if eligible_relays >= half_network:
            time_half_network = round(
                elapsed_time * half_network / eligible_relays
            )
            self.time_to_report_half_network = str(time_half_network)

        # In any case log an estimated on the time to measure all the network.
        estimated_time = round(
            elapsed_time * consensus_relays / eligible_relays
        )
        log.info("Estimated time to measure the network: %s hours.",
                 round(estimated_time / 60 / 60))

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    def add_relays_excluded_counters(self, exclusion_dict):
        """
        Add the monitoring KeyValues to the header about the number of
        relays not included because they were not ``eligible``.
        """
        log.debug("Adding relays excluded counters.")
        for k, v in exclusion_dict.items():
            setattr(self, k, str(v))

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class V3BWLine(object):
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    """
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    Create a Bandwidth List line following the spec version 1.X.X.
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    :param str node_id: the relay fingerprint
    :param int bw: the bandwidth value that directory authorities will include
        in their votes.
    :param dict kwargs: extra headers.
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    .. note:: tech-debt: move node_id and bw to kwargs and just ensure that
       the required values are in **kwargs
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    """
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    def __init__(self, node_id, bw, **kwargs):
        assert isinstance(node_id, str)
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        assert node_id.startswith('$')
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        self.node_id = node_id
        self.bw = bw
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        # For now, we do not want to add ``bw_filt`` to the bandwidth file,
        # therefore it is set here but not added to ``BWLINE_KEYS_V1``.
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        [setattr(self, k, v) for k, v in kwargs.items()
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         if k in BWLINE_KEYS_V1 + ["bw_filt"]]
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    def __str__(self):
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        return self.bw_strv1
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    @classmethod
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    def from_results(cls, results, secs_recent=None, secs_away=None,
                     min_num=0):
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        """Convert sbws results to relays' Bandwidth Lines

        ``bs`` stands for Bytes/seconds
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        ``bw_mean`` means the bw is obtained from the mean of the all the
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        downloads' bandwidth.
        Downloads' bandwidth are calculated as the amount of data received
        divided by the the time it took to received.
        bw = data (Bytes) / time (seconds)
        """
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        # log.debug("Len success_results %s", len(success_results))
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        node_id = '$' + results[0].fingerprint
        kwargs = dict()
        kwargs['nick'] = results[0].nickname
        if getattr(results[0], 'master_key_ed25519'):
            kwargs['master_key_ed25519'] = results[0].master_key_ed25519
        kwargs['time'] = cls.last_time_from_results(results)
        kwargs.update(cls.result_types_from_results(results))
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        # If it has not the attribute, return list to be able to call len
        # If it has the attribute, but it is None, return also list
        kwargs['relay_in_recent_consensus_count'] = str(
            max([
                len(getattr(r, 'relay_in_recent_consensus', []) or [])
                for r in results
            ])
        )

        kwargs['relay_recent_priority_list_count'] = str(
            max([
                len(getattr(r, 'relay_recent_priority_list', []) or [])
                for r in results
            ])
        )

        kwargs['relay_recent_measurement_attempt_count'] = str(
            max([
                len(getattr(r, 'relay_recent_measurement_attempt', []) or [])
                for r in results
            ])
        )
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        success_results = [r for r in results if isinstance(r, ResultSuccess)]
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        # NOTE: The following 4 conditions exclude relays from the bandwidth
        # file when the measurements does not satisfy some rules, what makes
        # the relay non-`eligible`.
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        # In BWLINE_KEYS_V1_4 it is explained what they mean.
        # In HEADER_RECENT_MEASUREMENTS_EXCLUDED_KEYS it is also
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        # explained the what it means the strings returned.
        # They rules were introduced in #28061 and #27338
        # In #28565 we introduce the KeyValues to know why they're excluded.
        # In #28563 we report these relays, but make Tor ignore them.
        # This might confirm #28042.

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        # If the relay is non-`eligible`:
        # Create a bandwidth line with the relay, but set ``vote=0`` so that
        # Tor versions with patch #29806 does not vote on the relay.
        # Set ``bw=1`` so that Tor versions without the patch,
        # will give the relay low bandwidth.
        # Include ``unmeasured=1`` in case Tor would vote on unmeasured relays
        # in future versions.
        # And return because there are not bandwidth values.
        # NOTE: the bandwidth values could still be obtained if:
        # 1. ``ResultError`` will store them
        # 2. assign ``results_recent = results`` when there is a ``exclusion
        # reason.
        # This could be done in a better way as part of a refactor #28684.

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        kwargs['vote'] = 0
        kwargs['unmeasured'] = 1
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        exclusion_reason = None
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        number_excluded_error = len(results) - len(success_results)
        if number_excluded_error > 0:
            # then the number of error results is the number of results
            kwargs['relay_recent_measurements_excluded_error_count'] = \
                number_excluded_error
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        if not success_results:
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            exclusion_reason = 'recent_measurements_excluded_error_count'
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            return (cls(node_id, 1, **kwargs), exclusion_reason)
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        results_away = \
            cls.results_away_each_other(success_results, secs_away)
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        number_excluded_near = len(success_results) - len(results_away)
        if number_excluded_near > 0:
            kwargs['relay_recent_measurements_excluded_near_count'] = \
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                number_excluded_near
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        if not results_away:
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            exclusion_reason = \
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                'recent_measurements_excluded_near_count'
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            return (cls(node_id, 1, **kwargs), exclusion_reason)
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        # log.debug("Results away from each other: %s",
        #           [unixts_to_isodt_str(r.time) for r in results_away])
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        results_recent = cls.results_recent_than(results_away, secs_recent)
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        number_excluded_old = len(results_away) - len(results_recent)
        if number_excluded_old > 0:
            kwargs['relay_recent_measurements_excluded_old_count'] = \
                number_excluded_old
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        if not results_recent:
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            exclusion_reason = \
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                'recent_measurements_excluded_old_count'
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            return (cls(node_id, 1, **kwargs), exclusion_reason)
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        if not len(results_recent) >= min_num:
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            kwargs['relay_recent_measurements_excluded_few_count'] = \
                len(results_recent)
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            # log.debug('The number of results is less than %s', min_num)
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            exclusion_reason = \
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                'recent_measurements_excluded_few_count'
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            return (cls(node_id, 1, **kwargs), exclusion_reason)

        # For any line not excluded, do not include vote and unmeasured
        # KeyValues
        del kwargs['vote']
        del kwargs['unmeasured']
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        rtt = cls.rtt_from_results(results_recent)
        if rtt:
            kwargs['rtt'] = rtt
        bw = cls.bw_median_from_results(results_recent)
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        # XXX: all the class functions could use the bw_measurements instead of
        # obtaining them each time or use a class Measurements.
        bw_measurements = scaling.bw_measurements_from_results(results_recent)
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        kwargs['bw_mean'] = cls.bw_mean_from_results(results_recent)
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        kwargs['bw_filt'] = scaling.bw_filt(bw_measurements)
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        kwargs['bw_median'] = cls.bw_median_from_results(
            results_recent)
        kwargs['desc_bw_avg'] = \
            cls.desc_bw_avg_from_results(results_recent)
        kwargs['desc_bw_bur'] = \
            cls.desc_bw_bur_from_results(results_recent)
        kwargs['consensus_bandwidth'] = \
            cls.consensus_bandwidth_from_results(results_recent)
        kwargs['consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured'] = \
            cls.consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured_from_results(
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                results_recent)
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        kwargs['desc_bw_obs_last'] = \
            cls.desc_bw_obs_last_from_results(results_recent)
        kwargs['desc_bw_obs_mean'] = \
            cls.desc_bw_obs_mean_from_results(results_recent)
        bwl = cls(node_id, bw, **kwargs)
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        return bwl, None
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    @classmethod
    def from_data(cls, data, fingerprint):
        assert fingerprint in data
        return cls.from_results(data[fingerprint])

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    @classmethod
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    def from_bw_line_v1(cls, line):
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        assert isinstance(line, str)
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        kwargs = dict([kv.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V1)
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                       for kv in line.split(BWLINE_KEYVALUES_SEP_V1)
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                       if kv.split(KEYVALUE_SEP_V1)[0] in BWLINE_KEYS_V1])
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        for k, v in kwargs.items():
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            if k in BWLINE_INT_KEYS:
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                kwargs[k] = int(v)
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        node_id = kwargs['node_id']
        bw = kwargs['bw']
        del kwargs['node_id']
        del kwargs['bw']
        bw_line = cls(node_id, bw, **kwargs)
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        return bw_line

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    @staticmethod
    def results_away_each_other(results, secs_away=None):
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        # log.debug("Checking whether results are away from each other in %s "
        #           "secs.", secs_away)
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        if secs_away is None or len(results) < 2:
            return results
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        for a, b in combinations(results, 2):
            if abs(a.time - b.time) > secs_away:
                return results
        # log.debug("Results are NOT away from each other in at least %ss: %s",
        #           secs_away, [unixts_to_isodt_str(r.time) for r in results])
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        return []
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    @staticmethod
    def results_recent_than(results, secs_recent=None):
        if secs_recent is None:
            return results
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        results_recent = list(filter(
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                            lambda x: (now_unixts() - x.time) < secs_recent,
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                            results))
        # if not results_recent:
        #     log.debug("Results are NOT more recent than %ss: %s",
        #               secs_recent,
        #               [unixts_to_isodt_str(r.time) for r in results])
        return results_recent
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    @staticmethod
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    def bw_median_from_results(results):
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        return max(round(median([dl['amount'] / dl['duration']
                                 for r in results for dl in r.downloads])), 1)

    @staticmethod
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    def bw_mean_from_results(results):
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        return max(round(mean([dl['amount'] / dl['duration']
                               for r in results for dl in r.downloads])), 1)

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    @staticmethod
    def last_time_from_results(results):
        return unixts_to_isodt_str(round(max([r.time for r in results])))

    @staticmethod
    def rtt_from_results(results):
        # convert from miliseconds to seconds
        rtts = [(round(rtt * 1000)) for r in results for rtt in r.rtts]
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        rtt = round(median(rtts)) if rtts else None
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        return rtt

    @staticmethod
    def result_types_from_results(results):
        rt_dict = dict([(result_type_to_key(rt.value),
                         num_results_of_type(results, rt.value))
                        for rt in _ResultType])
        return rt_dict

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    @staticmethod
    def desc_bw_avg_from_results(results):
        """Obtain the last descriptor bandwidth average from the results."""
        for r in reversed(results):
            if r.relay_average_bandwidth is not None:
                return r.relay_average_bandwidth
        return None

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    @staticmethod
    def desc_bw_bur_from_results(results):
        """Obtain the last descriptor bandwidth burst from the results."""
        for r in reversed(results):
            if r.relay_burst_bandwidth is not None:
                return r.relay_burst_bandwidth
        return None

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    @staticmethod
    def consensus_bandwidth_from_results(results):
        """Obtain the last consensus bandwidth from the results."""
        for r in reversed(results):
            if r.consensus_bandwidth is not None:
                return r.consensus_bandwidth
        return None

    @staticmethod
    def consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured_from_results(results):
        """Obtain the last consensus unmeasured flag from the results."""
        for r in reversed(results):
            if r.consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured is not None:
                return r.consensus_bandwidth_is_unmeasured
        return None

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    @staticmethod
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    def desc_bw_obs_mean_from_results(results):
        desc_bw_obs_ls = []
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        for r in results:
            if r.relay_observed_bandwidth is not None:
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                desc_bw_obs_ls.append(r.relay_observed_bandwidth)
        if desc_bw_obs_ls:
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            return round(mean(desc_bw_obs_ls))
        log.warning("Descriptor observed bandwidth is None.")
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        return None

    @staticmethod
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    def desc_bw_obs_last_from_results(results):
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        # the last is at the end of the list
        for r in reversed(results):
            if r.relay_observed_bandwidth is not None:
                return r.relay_observed_bandwidth
        return None

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    @property
    def bw_keyvalue_tuple_ls(self):
        """Return list of KeyValue Bandwidth Line tuples."""
        # sort the list to generate determinist headers
        keyvalue_tuple_ls = sorted([(k, v) for k, v in self.__dict__.items()
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                                    if k in BWLINE_KEYS_V1])
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        return keyvalue_tuple_ls
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    @property
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    def bw_keyvalue_v1str_ls(self):
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        """Return list of KeyValue Bandwidth Line strings following
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        spec v1.X.X.
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        """
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        bw_keyvalue_str = [KEYVALUE_SEP_V1 .join([k, str(v)])
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                           for k, v in self.bw_keyvalue_tuple_ls]
        return bw_keyvalue_str
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    @property
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    def bw_strv1(self):
        """Return Bandwidth Line string following spec v1.X.X."""
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        bw_line_str = BWLINE_KEYVALUES_SEP_V1.join(
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                        self.bw_keyvalue_v1str_ls) + LINE_SEP
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        if len(bw_line_str) > BW_LINE_SIZE:
            # if this is the case, probably there are too many KeyValues,
            # or the limit needs to be changed in Tor
            log.warn("The bandwidth line %s is longer than %s",
                     len(bw_line_str), BW_LINE_SIZE)
        return bw_line_str
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class V3BWFile(object):
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    """
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    Create a Bandwidth List file following spec version 1.X.X
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    :param V3BWHeader v3bwheader: header
    :param list v3bwlines: V3BWLines
    """
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    def __init__(self, v3bwheader, v3bwlines):
        self.header = v3bwheader
        self.bw_lines = v3bwlines

    def __str__(self):
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        return str(self.header) + ''.join([str(bw_line) or ''
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                                           for bw_line in self.bw_lines])

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    @classmethod
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    def from_results(cls, results, scanner_country=None,
                     destinations_countries=None, state_fpath='',
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                     scale_constant=SBWS_SCALE_CONSTANT,
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                     scaling_method=TORFLOW_SCALING,
                     torflow_obs=TORFLOW_OBS_LAST,
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                     torflow_cap=TORFLOW_BW_MARGIN,
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                     round_digs=PROP276_ROUND_DIG,
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                     secs_recent=None, secs_away=None, min_num=0,
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                     consensus_path=None, max_bw_diff_perc=MAX_BW_DIFF_PERC,
                     reverse=False):
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        """Create V3BWFile class from sbws Results.

        :param dict results: see below
        :param str state_fpath: path to the state file
        :param int scaling_method:
            Scaling method to obtain the bandwidth
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            Possible values: {None, SBWS_SCALING, TORFLOW_SCALING} = {0, 1, 2}
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        :param int scale_constant: sbws scaling constant
        :param int torflow_obs: method to choose descriptor observed bandwidth
        :param bool reverse: whether to sort the bw lines descending or not

        Results are in the form::

            {'relay_fp1': [Result1, Result2, ...],
             'relay_fp2': [Result1, Result2, ...]}

        """
        log.info('Processing results to generate a bandwidth list file.')
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        header = V3BWHeader.from_results(results, scanner_country,
                                         destinations_countries, state_fpath)
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        bw_lines_raw = []
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        bw_lines_excluded = []
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        number_consensus_relays = cls.read_number_consensus_relays(
            consensus_path)
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        state = State(state_fpath)
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        # Create a dictionary with the number of relays excluded by any of the
        # of the filtering rules that makes relays non-`eligible`.
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        # NOTE: In HEADER_RECENT_MEASUREMENTS_EXCLUDED_KEYS it is
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        # explained what are the KeyValues.
        # See also the comments in `from_results`.
        exclusion_dict = dict(
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            [(k, 0) for k in HEADER_RECENT_MEASUREMENTS_EXCLUDED_KEYS]
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            )
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        for fp, values in results.items():
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            # log.debug("Relay fp %s", fp)
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            line, reason = V3BWLine.from_results(values, secs_recent,
                                                 secs_away, min_num)
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            # If there is no reason it means the line will not be excluded.
            if not reason:
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                bw_lines_raw.append(line)
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            else:
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                # Store the excluded lines to include them in the bandwidth
                # file.
                bw_lines_excluded.append(line)
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                exclusion_dict[reason] = exclusion_dict.get(reason, 0) + 1
        # Add the headers with the number of excluded relays by reason
        header.add_relays_excluded_counters(exclusion_dict)

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        if not bw_lines_raw:
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            # It could be possible to scale the lines that were suc