Launching Tor Browser from the .dmg should obviously fail or install correclty, not neither
Launching Tor Browser from the mounted .dmg (instead of dragging it to the application folder link) causes Tor Browser to seemingly install correctly, especially if you're unfamiliar with it.
Doing this will open "Tor Browser" to the default Firefox homepage. There's no onion button in the top left, and the browser can't go to any websites because "The proxy server is refusing connections."
The ~/Library/Application Support/TorBrowser-Data directory is created with the files found in the attached file (missing the entire Tor subdirectory).
Perhaps interestingly, closing "Tor Browser" and reopening it again from the .dmg causes it to actually get installed correctly, but with an additional window asking if I'd like to install Tor Browser's 3 plugins.
Either Tor Browser should fail miserably when opened in this way or it should silently correct the user's mistake and install itself as it normally would before opening.