Unverified Commit ab5ab0ea authored by Georg Koppen's avatar Georg Koppen
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Add download-user-safety proposal to ideas

parent 61bf94fd
Filename: xxx-download-user-safety.txt
Title: Protecting Against Malicious Exit Nodes Performing File Infection
Author: Tom Ritter
Created: 06-Mar-2019
Status: Draft
1. Motivation
Sometimes, exit nodes are malicious. One activity malicious exit nodes
perform is infecting files (most commonly executables) downloaded over
insecure or otherwise compromised connections. Tor Project and
volunteers scan and report malicious exit relays where-upon they are
given the BadExit flag.
In the period of time between the nodes being identified and being
blocklisted, users are put at risk from these nodes.
2. Proposal
2.1. Required Infrastructure
Firstly, we assume that for each operating system, we have devised two lists of
file types for that system.
Executable File Types: These files are programs or otherwise things that
can definitly and intentionally execute code.
Examples: .exe .deb
Transparent File Types: These files are trivial or simple file types where
the risk presented is very low.
Examples: .txt .html .jpg, .png
Additionally, it would be ideal if, for file archive types (e.g. .zip), we read
the file archive manifest and classified the file archive accordingly.
Secondly, this proposal is complementary to the 103-selfsigned-user-safety.txt
proposal. We assume that (only) one of the following is in place, and we concern
ourselves only with downloads that meet one of the follow criteria
Criteria:
- the resource of concern is loaded over HTTP
or
- selfsigned-user-safety is not implemented, the resource of concern is loaded
over HTTPS, and the certificate has a Class 1 Suspicious Certificate Error
(defined below)
2.1.1 selfsigned-user-safety
The selfsigned-user-safety proposal is implemented.
2.1.2 Self-signed certificate error detection
As in selfsigned-user-safety, we classify TLS Certificate Errors into two
categories.
Class 1: Suspicious Certificate Errors
- A self-signed certificate
- A certificate signed by a Trust Anchor but for a different hostname
- A certificate that appears to be signed by a Trust Anchor, but is
missing an intermediate allowing a full path to be built
Class 2: Unsuspicious Certificate Errors
- An expired certificate signed by a Trust Anchor
- A certificate that requires an OCSP staple, but the staple is not
present
The browser will detect a Class 1 error and make this state available for
the browser to base decisions off of.
2.2. The difference between the download _link_ and the download
We concern ourselves with two situations, that is whether or not the
download link appears on is secure (defined as not having a Class 1
Error for any active page content).
When the download link comes from a secure page, but the target of the
download is insecure (defined as being HTTP or having a Class 1 Error),
the link itself impacts some amount of authenticity for the download.
However, when the download link comes from an insecure page, no
authenticity is possible, as a MITM attacker can point the download link
at a malicious file.
2.3. Browser Logic for Executable Files
Option 1: If the filetype of a download is one of a predefined set of executable
formats, the download is prevented entirely.
Option 2: If the filetype of a download is one of a predefined set of executable
formats, we attempt to verify the download.
If the download link is secure, we could consider either option.
If the download link is insecure, we should only consider Option 1. Verification
can impart no additional value.
2.4. Browser Logic for Non-Transparent, Non-Executable Files
This essentially reverses the option numbers from above, to reflect the reduced
risk of infection of non-executable files.
To be clear, however, the risk is still non-zero. Complex types such as .doc can
include macros or other executable code, alternately they are prime suspects for
client-side exploits.
Option 1: If the filetype of a download is NOT one of a predefined set of executable
formats, we attempt to verify the download.
Option 2: If the filetype of a download is NOT one of a predefined set of executable
formats, the download is prevented entirely.
Option 3: No verification is performed, and the download is allowed.
Again, if the download link is secure, we could consider Option 1 or 2.
If the download link is insecure, we should only consider Options 2 or 3. (Option 3
given the reduced risk for this filetype, Option 2 given the non-zero risk.)
2.4. Browser Logic for Transparent Files
To be exhaustive, no special action is taken for transparent files.
2.5 Verifying a File Download
To verify a file download, several different approaches could be taken:
Option 1: The entire file could be downloaded over a new circuit (taking care to
avoid the same exit family) and compared.
Option 2: Assuming the server supports range requests, random parts of the file could
be requested over a new circuit, and compared. This would save bandwidth and
time.
Note that we must choose random parts of the file; otherwise an attacker
could rewrite the binary in a way that avoids alternating the checked parts.
[[ How probable is it that we catch an alteration? We'd need to check a
component of the file already downloaded, and for large files we'd need to
check a lotbecause thered be a lot of places malicious code could hide...]]
Option 3: If the file supports Authenticode or a similar signature extension, we could
a) Check if the file has an authenticode signature. If not, verify by
some other means
b) Download the PE Header and the signature block at the end of the
file over a new circuit
c) Compare the Header,, Signature Block, and Signature Public Key and
confirm they match
d) Confirm that the signature isn't a weak signature that would verify
any file
At this point we should be assured that a) The OS will check the
authenticode block b) if the file hash doesn't match the signature
block the OS won't run it c) the file hash was the same on both
circuit downloads.
[[ Are there other approaches to file verification we could do that would work? ]]
2.6. Optional Extension
If a download verification fails, the browser could prompt the user to
send a report to Tor Project.
The simple version of this feature could open an email message with
details prepopulated and addressed to badrelays@.
The more advanced version could submit the information to an onion
service operated by Tor Project. On the backend, we could build an
automatic verification process as well.
The details would include the hostname visited, time, exit nodes, and
file data received over which exit nodes.
3. False Positives
False Positives during verification could occur if a server provides customized
binaries or only allows download of a file once.
4. User Interface/Experience
We should, in some way, alter the download screens to ensure that they do not register
a download as complete before the verification process has occured.
Similarly, we should not rename in-progress .part download files until the verification
has completed.
5. Concerns
An exit node who observes a range request will learn that a user is downloading
this file on another circuit. What would this tell them? It leaks a user's browsing
activity. Anything else?
Exit nodes who lie about their family have a chance to successfully attack the
user.
6. Research
It would probably be possible to perform a research experiment at one or more
exit nodes to determine the frequency of users download filetypes over HTTP.
We could record the number of filetypes downloaded over HTTP and the total
amount of exit traffic pushed by Tor. (No other records should be kept, for
safety reasons.) This would given us some ratio to indicate the frequency such
files are downloaded. This may guide us to choose more stringent blocking or
less stringent.
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