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This document summarizes new features and bugfixes in each stable release
of Tor. If you want to see more detailed descriptions of the changes in
each development snapshot, see the ChangeLog file.
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Changes in version 0.2.8.6 - 2016-08-02
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  Tor 0.2.8.6 is the first stable version of the Tor 0.2.8 series.

  The Tor 0.2.8 series improves client bootstrapping performance,
  completes the authority-side implementation of improved identity
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  keys for relays, and includes numerous bugfixes and performance
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  improvements throughout the program. This release continues to
  improve the coverage of Tor's test suite.  For a full list of
  changes since Tor 0.2.7, see the ReleaseNotes file.

  Below is a list of the changes since Tor 0.2.7.

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  o New system requirements:
    - Tor no longer attempts to support platforms where the "time_t"
      type is unsigned. (To the best of our knowledge, only OpenVMS does
      this, and Tor has never actually built on OpenVMS.) Closes
      ticket 18184.
    - Tor no longer supports versions of OpenSSL with a broken
      implementation of counter mode. (This bug was present in OpenSSL
      1.0.0, and was fixed in OpenSSL 1.0.0a.) Tor still detects, but no
      longer runs with, these versions.
    - Tor now uses Autoconf version 2.63 or later, and Automake 1.11 or
      later (released in 2008 and 2009 respectively). If you are
      building Tor from the git repository instead of from the source
      distribution, and your tools are older than this, you will need to
      upgrade. Closes ticket 17732.

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  o Directory authority changes:
    - Update the V3 identity key for the dannenberg directory authority:
      it was changed on 18 November 2015. Closes task 17906. Patch
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      by teor.
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    - Urras is no longer a directory authority. Closes ticket 19271.

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  o Major features (directory system):
    - Include a trial list of default fallback directories, based on an
      opt-in survey of suitable relays. Doing this should make clients
      bootstrap more quickly and reliably, and reduce the load on the
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      directory authorities. Closes ticket 15775. Patch by teor.
      Candidates identified using an OnionOO script by weasel, teor,
      gsathya, and karsten.
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    - Previously only relays that explicitly opened a directory port
      (DirPort) accepted directory requests from clients. Now all
      relays, with and without a DirPort, accept and serve tunneled
      directory requests that they receive through their ORPort. You can
      disable this behavior using the new DirCache option. Closes
      ticket 12538.
    - When bootstrapping multiple consensus downloads at a time, use the
      first one that starts downloading, and close the rest. This
      reduces failures when authorities or fallback directories are slow
      or down. Together with the code for feature 15775, this feature
      should reduces failures due to fallback churn. Implements ticket
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      4483. Patch by teor. Implements IPv4 portions of proposal 210 by
      mikeperry and teor.
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  o Major features (security, Linux):
    - When Tor starts as root on Linux and is told to switch user ID, it
      can now retain the capability to bind to low ports. By default,
      Tor will do this only when it's switching user ID and some low
      ports have been configured. You can change this behavior with the
      new option KeepBindCapabilities. Closes ticket 8195.

  o Major bugfixes (client, bootstrapping):
    - Check if bootstrap consensus downloads are still needed when the
      linked connection attaches. This prevents tor making unnecessary
      begindir-style connections, which are the only directory
      connections tor clients make since the fix for 18483 was merged.
    - Fix some edge cases where consensus download connections may not
      have been closed, even though they were not needed. Related to fix
      for 18809.
    - Make relays retry consensus downloads the correct number of times,
      rather than the more aggressive client retry count. Fixes part of
      ticket 18809.

  o Major bugfixes (dns proxy mode, crash):
    - Avoid crashing when running as a DNS proxy. Fixes bug 16248;
      bugfix on 0.2.0.1-alpha. Patch from "cypherpunks".

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  o Major bugfixes (ed25519, voting):
    - Actually enable support for authorities to match routers by their
      Ed25519 identities. Previously, the code had been written, but
      some debugging code that had accidentally been left in the
      codebase made it stay turned off. Fixes bug 17702; bugfix
      on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
    - When collating votes by Ed25519 identities, authorities now
      include a "NoEdConsensus" flag if the ed25519 value (or lack
      thereof) for a server does not reflect the majority consensus.
      Related to bug 17668; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
    - When generating a vote with keypinning disabled, never include two
      entries for the same ed25519 identity. This bug was causing
      authorities to generate votes that they could not parse when a
      router violated key pinning by changing its RSA identity but
      keeping its Ed25519 identity. Fixes bug 17668; fixes part of bug
      18318. Bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.

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  o Major bugfixes (key management):
    - If OpenSSL fails to generate an RSA key, do not retain a dangling
      pointer to the previous (uninitialized) key value. The impact here
      should be limited to a difficult-to-trigger crash, if OpenSSL is
      running an engine that makes key generation failures possible, or
      if OpenSSL runs out of memory. Fixes bug 19152; bugfix on
      0.2.1.10-alpha. Found by Yuan Jochen Kang, Suman Jana, and
      Baishakhi Ray.

  o Major bugfixes (security, client, DNS proxy):
    - Stop a crash that could occur when a client running with DNSPort
      received a query with multiple address types, and the first
      address type was not supported. Found and fixed by Scott Dial.
      Fixes bug 18710; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (security, compilation):
    - Correctly detect compiler flags on systems where _FORTIFY_SOURCE
      is predefined. Previously, our use of -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE would
      cause a compiler warning, thereby making other checks fail, and
      needlessly disabling compiler-hardening support. Fixes one case of
      bug 18841; bugfix on 0.2.3.17-beta. Patch from "trudokal".
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    - Repair hardened builds under the clang compiler. Previously, our
      use of _FORTIFY_SOURCE would conflict with clang's address
      sanitizer. Fixes bug 14821; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.
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  o Major bugfixes (security, pointers):
    - Avoid a difficult-to-trigger heap corruption attack when extending
      a smartlist to contain over 16GB of pointers. Fixes bug 18162;
      bugfix on 0.1.1.11-alpha, which fixed a related bug incompletely.
      Reported by Guido Vranken.

  o Major bugfixes (testing):
    - Fix a bug that would block 'make test-network-all' on systems where
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      IPv6 packets were lost. Fixes bug 19008; bugfix on 0.2.7.3-rc.
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  o Major bugfixes (user interface):
    - Correctly give a warning in the cases where a relay is specified
      by nickname, and one such relay is found, but it is not officially
      Named. Fixes bug 19203; bugfix on 0.2.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor features (accounting):
    - Added two modes to the AccountingRule option: One for limiting
      only the number of bytes sent ("AccountingRule out"), and one for
      limiting only the number of bytes received ("AccountingRule in").
      Closes ticket 15989; patch from "unixninja92".

  o Minor features (bug-resistance):
    - Make Tor survive errors involving connections without a
      corresponding event object. Previously we'd fail with an
      assertion; now we produce a log message. Related to bug 16248.
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    - Use tor_snprintf() and tor_vsnprintf() even in external and low-
      level code, to harden against accidental failures to NUL-
      terminate. Part of ticket 17852. Patch from jsturgix. Found
      with Flawfinder.
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  o Minor features (build):
    - Detect systems with FreeBSD-derived kernels (such as GNU/kFreeBSD)
      as having possible IPFW support. Closes ticket 18448. Patch from
      Steven Chamberlain.
    - Since our build process now uses "make distcheck", we no longer
      force "make dist" to depend on "make check". Closes ticket 17893;
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      patch from "cypherpunks".
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    - Tor now builds once again with the recent OpenSSL 1.1 development
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      branch (tested against 1.1.0-pre5 and 1.1.0-pre6-dev). We have been
      tracking OpenSSL 1.1 development as it has progressed, and fixing
      numerous compatibility issues as they arose. See tickets
      17549, 17921, 17984, 19499, and 18286.
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    - When building manual pages, set the timezone to "UTC", so that the
      output is reproducible. Fixes bug 19558; bugfix on 0.2.2.9-alpha.
      Patch from intrigeri.

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  o Minor features (clients):
    - Make clients, onion services, and bridge relays always use an
      encrypted begindir connection for directory requests. Resolves
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      ticket 18483. Patch by teor.
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  o Minor features (controller):
    - Add 'GETINFO exit-policy/reject-private/[default,relay]', so
      controllers can examine the the reject rules added by
      ExitPolicyRejectPrivate. This makes it easier for stem to display
      exit policies.
    - Adds the FallbackDir entries to 'GETINFO config/defaults'. Closes
      tickets 16774 and 17817. Patch by George Tankersley.
    - New 'GETINFO hs/service/desc/id/' command to retrieve a hidden
      service descriptor from a service's local hidden service
      descriptor cache. Closes ticket 14846.

  o Minor features (crypto):
    - Add SHA3 and SHAKE support to crypto.c. Closes ticket 17783.
    - Add SHA512 support to crypto.c. Closes ticket 17663; patch from
      George Tankersley.
    - Improve performance when hashing non-multiple of 8 sized buffers,
      based on Andrew Moon's public domain SipHash-2-4 implementation.
      Fixes bug 17544; bugfix on 0.2.5.3-alpha.
    - Validate the hard-coded Diffie-Hellman parameters and ensure that
      p is a safe prime, and g is a suitable generator. Closes
      ticket 18221.
    - When allocating a digest state object, allocate no more space than
      we actually need. Previously, we would allocate as much space as
      the state for the largest algorithm would need. This change saves
      up to 672 bytes per circuit. Closes ticket 17796.

  o Minor features (directory downloads):
    - Add UseDefaultFallbackDirs, which enables any hard-coded fallback
      directory mirrors. The default is 1; set it to 0 to disable
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      fallbacks. Implements ticket 17576. Patch by teor.
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    - Wait for busy authorities and fallback directories to become non-
      busy when bootstrapping. (A similar change was made in 6c443e987d
      for directory caches chosen from the consensus.) Closes ticket
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      17864; patch by teor.
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  o Minor features (geoip):
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    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the July 6 2016 Maxmind GeoLite2
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      Country database.

  o Minor features (hidden service directory):
    - Streamline relay-side hsdir handling: when relays consider whether
      to accept an uploaded hidden service descriptor, they no longer
      check whether they are one of the relays in the network that is
      "supposed" to handle that descriptor. Implements ticket 18332.

  o Minor features (IPv6):
    - Add ClientPreferIPv6DirPort, which is set to 0 by default. If set
      to 1, tor prefers IPv6 directory addresses.
    - Add ClientUseIPv4, which is set to 1 by default. If set to 0, tor
      avoids using IPv4 for client OR and directory connections.
    - Add address policy assume_action support for IPv6 addresses.
    - Add an argument 'ipv6=address:orport' to the DirAuthority and
      FallbackDir torrc options, to specify an IPv6 address for an
      authority or fallback directory. Add hard-coded ipv6 addresses for
      directory authorities that have them. Closes ticket 17327; patch
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      from Nick Mathewson and teor.
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    - Allow users to configure directory authorities and fallback
      directory servers with IPv6 addresses and ORPorts. Resolves
      ticket 6027.
    - Limit IPv6 mask bits to 128.
    - Make tor_ersatz_socketpair work on IPv6-only systems. Fixes bug
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      17638; bugfix on 0.0.2pre8. Patch by teor.
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    - Try harder to obey the IP version restrictions "ClientUseIPv4 0",
      "ClientUseIPv6 0", "ClientPreferIPv6ORPort", and
      "ClientPreferIPv6DirPort". Closes ticket 17840; patch by teor.
    - Warn when comparing against an AF_UNSPEC address in a policy, it's
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      almost always a bug. Closes ticket 17863; patch by teor.
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    - routerset_parse now accepts IPv6 literal addresses. Fixes bug
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      17060; bugfix on 0.2.1.3-alpha. Patch by teor.
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  o Minor features (Linux seccomp2 sandbox):
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    - Reject attempts to change our Address with "Sandbox 1" enabled.
      Changing Address with Sandbox turned on would never actually work,
      but previously it would fail in strange and confusing ways. Found
      while fixing 18548.

  o Minor features (logging):
    - When logging to syslog, allow a tag to be added to the syslog
      identity (the string prepended to every log message). The tag can
      be configured with SyslogIdentityTag and defaults to none. Setting
      it to "foo" will cause logs to be tagged as "Tor-foo". Closes
      ticket 17194.

  o Minor features (portability):
    - Use timingsafe_memcmp() where available. Closes ticket 17944;
      patch from <logan@hackers.mu>.

  o Minor features (relay, address discovery):
    - Add a family argument to get_interface_addresses_raw() and
      subfunctions to make network interface address interogation more
      efficient. Now Tor can specifically ask for IPv4, IPv6 or both
      types of interfaces from the operating system. Resolves
      ticket 17950.
    - When get_interface_address6_list(.,AF_UNSPEC,.) is called and
      fails to enumerate interface addresses using the platform-specific
      API, have it rely on the UDP socket fallback technique to try and
      find out what IP addresses (both IPv4 and IPv6) our machine has.
      Resolves ticket 17951.

  o Minor features (replay cache):
    - The replay cache now uses SHA256 instead of SHA1. Implements
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      feature 8961. Patch by teor, issue reported by rransom.
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  o Minor features (robustness):
    - Exit immediately with an error message if the code attempts to use
      Libevent without having initialized it. This should resolve some
      frequently-made mistakes in our unit tests. Closes ticket 18241.

  o Minor features (security, clock):
    - Warn when the system clock appears to move back in time (when the
      state file was last written in the future). Tor doesn't know that
      consensuses have expired if the clock is in the past. Patch by
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      teor. Implements ticket 17188.
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  o Minor features (security, exit policies):
    - ExitPolicyRejectPrivate now rejects more private addresses by
      default. Specifically, it now rejects the relay's outbound bind
      addresses (if configured), and the relay's configured port
      addresses (such as ORPort and DirPort). Fixes bug 17027; bugfix on
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      0.2.0.11-alpha. Patch by teor.
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  o Minor features (security, memory erasure):
    - Make memwipe() do nothing when passed a NULL pointer or buffer of
      zero size. Check size argument to memwipe() for underflow. Fixes
      bug 18089; bugfix on 0.2.3.25 and 0.2.4.6-alpha. Reported by "gk",
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      patch by teor.
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    - Set the unused entries in a smartlist to NULL. This helped catch
      a (harmless) bug, and shouldn't affect performance too much.
      Implements ticket 17026.
    - Use SecureMemoryWipe() function to securely clean memory on
      Windows. Previously we'd use OpenSSL's OPENSSL_cleanse() function.
      Implements feature 17986.
    - Use explicit_bzero or memset_s when present. Previously, we'd use
      OpenSSL's OPENSSL_cleanse() function. Closes ticket 7419; patches
      from <logan@hackers.mu> and <selven@hackers.mu>.

  o Minor features (security, RNG):
    - Adjust Tor's use of OpenSSL's RNG APIs so that they absolutely,
      positively are not allowed to fail. Previously we depended on
      internal details of OpenSSL's behavior. Closes ticket 17686.
    - Never use the system entropy output directly for anything besides
      seeding the PRNG. When we want to generate important keys, instead
      of using system entropy directly, we now hash it with the PRNG
      stream. This may help resist certain attacks based on broken OS
      entropy implementations. Closes part of ticket 17694.
    - Use modern system calls (like getentropy() or getrandom()) to
      generate strong entropy on platforms that have them. Closes
      ticket 13696.

  o Minor features (security, win32):
    - Set SO_EXCLUSIVEADDRUSE on Win32 to avoid a local port-stealing
      attack. Fixes bug 18123; bugfix on all tor versions. Patch
      by teor.

  o Minor features (unix domain sockets):
    - Add a new per-socket option, RelaxDirModeCheck, to allow creating
      Unix domain sockets without checking the permissions on the parent
      directory. (Tor checks permissions by default because some
      operating systems only check permissions on the parent directory.
      However, some operating systems do look at permissions on the
      socket, and tor's default check is unneeded.) Closes ticket 18458.
      Patch by weasel.

  o Minor features (unix file permissions):
    - Defer creation of Unix sockets until after setuid. This avoids
      needing CAP_CHOWN and CAP_FOWNER when using systemd's
      CapabilityBoundingSet, or chown and fowner when using SELinux.
      Implements part of ticket 17562. Patch from Jamie Nguyen.
    - If any directory created by Tor is marked as group readable, the
      filesystem group is allowed to be either the default GID or the
      root user. Allowing root to read the DataDirectory prevents the
      need for CAP_READ_SEARCH when using systemd's
      CapabilityBoundingSet, or dac_read_search when using SELinux.
      Implements part of ticket 17562. Patch from Jamie Nguyen.
    - Introduce a new DataDirectoryGroupReadable option. If it is set to
      1, the DataDirectory will be made readable by the default GID.
      Implements part of ticket 17562. Patch from Jamie Nguyen.

  o Minor bugfixes (accounting):
    - The max bandwidth when using 'AccountRule sum' is now correctly
      logged. Fixes bug 18024; bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha. Patch
      from "unixninja92".

  o Minor bugfixes (assert, portability):
    - Fix an assertion failure in memarea.c on systems where "long" is
      shorter than the size of a pointer. Fixes bug 18716; bugfix
      on 0.2.1.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (bootstrap):
    - Consistently use the consensus download schedule for authority
      certificates. Fixes bug 18816; bugfix on 0.2.4.13-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (build):
    - Avoid spurious failures from configure files related to calling
      exit(0) in TOR_SEARCH_LIBRARY. Fixes bug 18625; bugfix on
      0.2.0.1-alpha. Patch from "cypherpunks".
    - Do not link the unit tests against both the testing and non-
      testing versions of the static libraries. Fixes bug 18490; bugfix
      on 0.2.7.1-alpha.
    - Resolve warnings when building on systems that are concerned with
      signed char. Fixes bug 18728; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha
      and 0.2.6.1-alpha.
    - Silence spurious clang-scan warnings in the ed25519_donna code by
      explicitly initializing some objects. Fixes bug 18384; bugfix on
      0.2.7.2-alpha. Patch by teor.
    - When libscrypt.h is found, but no libscrypt library can be linked,
      treat libscrypt as absent. Fixes bug 19161; bugfix
      on 0.2.6.1-alpha.
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    - Cause the unit tests to compile correctly on mingw64 versions that
      lack sscanf. Fixes bug 19213; bugfix on 0.2.7.1-alpha.
    - Don't try to use the pthread_condattr_setclock() function unless
      it actually exists. Fixes compilation on NetBSD-6.x. Fixes bug
      17819; bugfix on 0.2.6.3-alpha.
    - Fix backtrace compilation on FreeBSD. Fixes bug 17827; bugfix
      on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Fix search for libevent libraries on OpenBSD (and other systems
      that install libevent 1 and libevent 2 in parallel). Fixes bug
      16651; bugfix on 0.1.0.7-rc. Patch from "rubiate".
    - Isolate environment variables meant for tests from the rest of the
      build system. Fixes bug 17818; bugfix on 0.2.7.3-rc.
    - Mark all object files that include micro-revision.i as depending
      on it, so as to make parallel builds more reliable. Fixes bug
      17826; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
    - Remove config.log only from make distclean, not from make clean.
      Fixes bug 17924; bugfix on 0.2.4.1-alpha.
    - Replace usage of 'INLINE' with 'inline'. Fixes bug 17804; bugfix
      on 0.0.2pre8.
    - Remove an #endif from configure.ac so that we correctly detect the
      presence of in6_addr.s6_addr32. Fixes bug 17923; bugfix
      on 0.2.0.13-alpha.
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  o Minor bugfixes (client, bootstrap):
    - Count receipt of new microdescriptors as progress towards
      bootstrapping. Previously, with EntryNodes set, Tor might not
      successfully repopulate the guard set on bootstrapping. Fixes bug
      16825; bugfix on 0.2.3.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (code correctness):
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    - Fix a bad memory handling bug that would occur if we had queued a
      cell on a channel's incoming queue. Fortunately, we can't actually
      queue a cell like that as our code is constructed today, but it's
      best to avoid this kind of error, even if there isn't any code
      that triggers it today. Fixes bug 18570; bugfix on 0.2.4.4-alpha.
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    - Assert that allocated memory held by the reputation code is freed
      according to its internal counters. Fixes bug 17753; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.1-alpha.
    - Assert when the TLS contexts fail to initialize. Fixes bug 17683;
      bugfix on 0.0.6.
    - Update to the latest version of Trunnel, which tries harder to
      avoid generating code that can invoke memcpy(p,NULL,0). Bug found
      by clang address sanitizer. Fixes bug 18373; bugfix
      on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
    - When closing an entry connection, generate a warning if we should
      have sent an end cell for it but we haven't. Fixes bug 17876;
      bugfix on 0.2.3.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (configuration):
    - Fix a tiny memory leak when parsing a port configuration ending in
      ":auto". Fixes bug 18374; bugfix on 0.2.3.3-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (containers):
    - If we somehow attempt to construct a heap with more than
      1073741822 elements, avoid an integer overflow when maintaining
      the heap property. Fixes bug 18296; bugfix on 0.1.2.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (controller, microdescriptors):
    - Make GETINFO dir/status-vote/current/consensus conform to the
      control specification by returning "551 Could not open cached
      consensus..." when not caching consensuses. Fixes bug 18920;
      bugfix on 0.2.2.6-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (crypto):
    - Check the return value of HMAC() and assert on failure. Fixes bug
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  o Minor bugfixes (directories):
    - When fetching extrainfo documents, compare their SHA256 digests
      and Ed25519 signing key certificates with the routerinfo that led
      us to fetch them, rather than with the most recent routerinfo.
      Otherwise we generate many spurious warnings about mismatches.
      Fixes bug 17150; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
    - When generating a URL for a directory server on an IPv6 address,
      wrap the IPv6 address in square brackets. Fixes bug 18051; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.9-alpha. Patch from Malek.

  o Minor bugfixes (downloading):
    - Predict more correctly whether we'll be downloading over HTTP when
      we determine the maximum length of a URL. This should avoid a
      "BUG" warning about the Squid HTTP proxy and its URL limits. Fixes
      bug 19191.

  o Minor bugfixes (exit policies, security):
    - Refresh an exit relay's exit policy when interface addresses
      change. Previously, tor only refreshed the exit policy when the
      configured external address changed. Fixes bug 18208; bugfix on
      0.2.7.3-rc. Patch by teor.

  o Minor bugfixes (fallback directories):
    - Mark fallbacks as "too busy" when they return a 503 response,
      rather than just marking authorities. Fixes bug 17572; bugfix on
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      0.2.4.7-alpha. Patch by teor.
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    - When requesting extrainfo descriptors from a trusted directory
      server, check whether it is an authority or a fallback directory
      which supports extrainfo descriptors. Fixes bug 18489; bugfix on
      0.2.4.7-alpha. Reported by atagar, patch by teor.

  o Minor bugfixes (hidden service, client):
    - Handle the case where the user makes several fast consecutive
      requests to the same .onion address. Previously, the first six
      requests would each trigger a descriptor fetch, each picking a
      directory (there are 6 overall) and the seventh one would fail
      because no directories were left, thereby triggering a close on
      all current directory connections asking for the hidden service.
      The solution here is to not close the connections if we have
      pending directory fetches. Fixes bug 15937; bugfix
      on 0.2.7.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (hidden service, control port):
    - Add the onion address to the HS_DESC event for the UPLOADED action
      both on success or failure. It was previously hardcoded with
      UNKNOWN. Fixes bug 16023; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (hidden service, directory):
    - Bridges now refuse "rendezvous2" (hidden service descriptor)
      publish attempts. Suggested by ticket 18332.

  o Minor bugfixes (IPv6):
    - Update the limits in max_dl_per_request for IPv6 address length.
      Fixes bug 17573; bugfix on 0.2.1.5-alpha.

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  o Minor bugfixes (Linux seccomp2 sandbox):
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    - Allow more syscalls when running with "Sandbox 1" enabled:
      sysinfo, getsockopt(SO_SNDBUF), and setsockopt(SO_SNDBUFFORCE). On
      some systems, these are required for Tor to start. Fixes bug
      18397; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha. Patch from Daniel Pinto.
    - Allow IPPROTO_UDP datagram sockets when running with "Sandbox 1",
      so that get_interface_address6_via_udp_socket_hack() can work.
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      Fixes bug 19660; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
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    - Allow the setrlimit syscall, and the prlimit and prlimit64
      syscalls, which some libc implementations use under the hood.
      Fixes bug 15221; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
    - Avoid a 10-second delay when starting as a client with "Sandbox 1"
      enabled and no DNS resolvers configured. This should help TAILS
      start up faster. Fixes bug 18548; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
    - Fix a crash when using offline master ed25519 keys with the Linux
      seccomp2 sandbox enabled. Fixes bug 17675; bugfix on 0.2.7.3-rc.
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    - Allow statistics to be written to disk when "Sandbox 1" is
      enabled. Fixes bugs 19556 and 19957; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha and
      0.2.6.1-alpha respectively.
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  o Minor bugfixes (logging):
    - In log messages that include a function name, use __FUNCTION__
      instead of __PRETTY_FUNCTION__. In GCC, these are synonymous, but
      with clang __PRETTY_FUNCTION__ has extra information we don't
      need. Fixes bug 16563; bugfix on 0.0.2pre8. Fix by Tom van
      der Woerdt.
    - Remove needless quotes from a log message about unparseable
      addresses. Fixes bug 17843; bugfix on 0.2.3.3-alpha.
    - Scrub service name in "unrecognized service ID" log messages.
      Fixes bug 18600; bugfix on 0.2.4.11-alpha.
    - When logging information about an unparsable networkstatus vote or
      consensus, do not say "vote" when we mean consensus. Fixes bug
      18368; bugfix on 0.2.0.8-alpha.
    - When we can't generate a signing key because OfflineMasterKey is
      set, do not imply that we should have been able to load it. Fixes
      bug 18133; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
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    - When logging a malformed hostname received through socks4, scrub
      it if SafeLogging says we should. Fixes bug 17419; bugfix
      on 0.1.1.16-rc.
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  o Minor bugfixes (memory safety):
    - Avoid freeing an uninitialized pointer when opening a socket fails
      in get_interface_addresses_ioctl(). Fixes bug 18454; bugfix on
      0.2.3.11-alpha. Reported by toralf and "cypherpunks", patch
      by teor.
    - Fix a memory leak in "tor --list-fingerprint". Fixes part of bug
      18672; bugfix on 0.2.5.1-alpha.
    - Fix a memory leak in tor-gencert. Fixes part of bug 18672; bugfix
      on 0.2.0.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (pluggable transports):
    - Avoid reporting a spurious error when we decide that we don't need
      to terminate a pluggable transport because it has already exited.
      Fixes bug 18686; bugfix on 0.2.5.5-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (pointer arithmetic):
    - Fix a bug in memarea_alloc() that could have resulted in remote
      heap write access, if Tor had ever passed an unchecked size to
      memarea_alloc(). Fortunately, all the sizes we pass to
      memarea_alloc() are pre-checked to be less than 128 kilobytes.
      Fixes bug 19150; bugfix on 0.2.1.1-alpha. Bug found by
      Guido Vranken.

  o Minor bugfixes (private directory):
    - Prevent a race condition when creating private directories. Fixes
      part of bug 17852; bugfix on 0.0.2pre13. Part of ticket 17852.
      Patch from jsturgix. Found with Flawfinder.

  o Minor bugfixes (relays):
    - Check that both the ORPort and DirPort (if present) are reachable
      before publishing a relay descriptor. Otherwise, relays publish a
      descriptor with DirPort 0 when the DirPort reachability test takes
      longer than the ORPort reachability test. Fixes bug 18050; bugfix
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    - Resolve some edge cases where we might launch an ORPort
      reachability check even when DisableNetwork is set. Noticed while
      fixing bug 18616; bugfix on 0.2.3.9-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (relays, hidden services):
    - Refuse connection requests to private OR addresses unless
      ExtendAllowPrivateAddresses is set. Previously, tor would connect,
      then refuse to send any cells to a private address. Fixes bugs
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  o Minor bugfixes (security, hidden services):
    - Prevent hidden services connecting to client-supplied rendezvous
      addresses that are reserved as internal or multicast. Fixes bug
      8976; bugfix on 0.2.3.21-rc. Patch by dgoulet and teor.

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  o Minor bugfixes (statistics):
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    - Consistently check for overflow in round_*_to_next_multiple_of
      functions, and add unit tests with additional and maximal values.
      Fixes part of bug 13192; bugfix on 0.2.2.1-alpha.
    - Handle edge cases in the laplace functions: avoid division by
      zero, avoid taking the log of zero, and silence clang type
      conversion warnings using round and trunc. Add unit tests for edge
      cases with maximal values. Fixes part of bug 13192; bugfix
      on 0.2.6.2-alpha.
    - We now include consensus downloads via IPv6 in our directory-
      request statistics. Fixes bug 18460; bugfix on 0.2.3.14-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (test networks, IPv6):
    - Allow internal IPv6 addresses in descriptors in test networks.
      Fixes bug 17153; bugfix on 0.2.3.16-alpha. Patch by teor, reported
      by karsten.

  o Minor bugfixes (testing):
    - Check the full results of SHA256 and SHA512 digests in the unit
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    - Fix a memory leak in the ntor test. Fixes bug 17778; bugfix
      on 0.2.4.8-alpha.
    - Fix a small memory leak that would occur when the
      TestingEnableCellStatsEvent option was turned on. Fixes bug 18673;
      bugfix on 0.2.5.2-alpha.
    - Make unit tests pass on IPv6-only systems, and systems without
      localhost addresses (like some FreeBSD jails). Fixes bug 17632;
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    - The test for log_heartbeat was incorrectly failing in timezones
      with non-integer offsets. Instead of comparing the end of the time
      string against a constant, compare it to the output of
      format_local_iso_time when given the correct input. Fixes bug
      18039; bugfix on 0.2.5.4-alpha.
    - We no longer disable assertions in the unit tests when coverage is
      enabled. Instead, we require you to say --disable-asserts-in-tests
      to the configure script if you need assertions disabled in the
      unit tests (for example, if you want to perform branch coverage).
      Fixes bug 18242; bugfix on 0.2.7.1-alpha.

  o Minor bugfixes (time handling):
    - When correcting a corrupt 'struct tm' value, fill in the tm_wday
      field. Otherwise, our unit tests crash on Windows. Fixes bug
      18977; bugfix on 0.2.2.25-alpha.
    - Avoid overflow in tor_timegm when parsing dates in and after 2038
      on platforms with 32-bit time_t. Fixes bug 18479; bugfix on
      0.0.2pre14. Patch by teor.

  o Minor bugfixes (tor-gencert):
    - Correctly handle the case where an authority operator enters a
      passphrase but sends an EOF before sending a newline. Fixes bug
      17443; bugfix on 0.2.0.20-rc. Found by junglefowl.

  o Code simplification and refactoring:
    - Clean up a little duplicated code in
      crypto_expand_key_material_TAP(). Closes ticket 17587; patch
      from "pfrankw".
    - Decouple the list of streams waiting to be attached to circuits
      from the overall connection list. This change makes it possible to
      attach streams quickly while simplifying Tor's callgraph and
      avoiding O(N) scans of the entire connection list. Closes
      ticket 17590.
    - Extract the more complicated parts of circuit_mark_for_close()
      into a new function that we run periodically before circuits are
      freed. This change removes more than half of the functions
      currently in the "blob". Closes ticket 17218.
    - Move logging of redundant policy entries in
      policies_parse_exit_policy_internal into its own function. Closes
      ticket 17608; patch from "juce".
    - Quote all the string interpolations in configure.ac -- even those
      which we are pretty sure can't contain spaces. Closes ticket
      17744. Patch from zerosion.
    - Remove code for configuring OpenSSL dynamic locks; OpenSSL doesn't
      use them. Closes ticket 17926.
    - Remove specialized code for non-inplace AES_CTR. 99% of our AES is
      inplace, so there's no need to have a separate implementation for
      the non-inplace code. Closes ticket 18258. Patch from Malek.
    - Simplify return types for some crypto functions that can't
      actually fail. Patch from Hassan Alsibyani. Closes ticket 18259.
    - When a direct directory request fails immediately on launch,
      instead of relaunching that request from inside the code that
      launches it, instead mark the connection for teardown. This change
      simplifies Tor's callback and prevents the directory-request
      launching code from invoking itself recursively. Closes
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  o Documentation:
    - Add a description of the correct use of the '--keygen' command-
      line option. Closes ticket 17583; based on text by 's7r'.
    - Change build messages to refer to "Fedora" instead of "Fedora
      Core", and "dnf" instead of "yum". Closes tickets 18459 and 18426.
      Patches from "icanhasaccount" and "cypherpunks".
    - Document the contents of the 'datadir/keys' subdirectory in the
      manual page. Closes ticket 17621.
    - Document the minimum HeartbeatPeriod value. Closes ticket 15638.
    - Explain actual minima for BandwidthRate. Closes ticket 16382.
    - Fix a minor formatting typo in the manpage. Closes ticket 17791.
    - Mention torspec URL in the manpage and point the reader to it
      whenever we mention a document that belongs in torspce. Fixes
      issue 17392.
    - Stop recommending use of nicknames to identify relays in our
      MapAddress documentation. Closes ticket 18312.

  o Removed features:
    - Remove client-side support for connecting to Tor relays running
      versions of Tor before 0.2.3.6-alpha. These relays didn't support
      the v3 TLS handshake protocol, and are no longer allowed on the
      Tor network. Implements the client side of ticket 11150. Based on
      patches by Tom van der Woerdt.
    - We no longer maintain an internal freelist in memarea.c.
      Allocators should be good enough to make this code unnecessary,
      and it's doubtful that it ever had any performance benefit.

  o Testing:
    - Add unit tests to check for common RNG failure modes, such as
      returning all zeroes, identical values, or incrementing values
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    - Always test both ed25519 backends, so that we can be sure that our
      batch-open replacement code works. Part of ticket 16794.
    - Cover dns_resolve_impl() in dns.c with unit tests. Implements a
      portion of ticket 16831.
    - Fix several warnings from clang's address sanitizer produced in
      the unit tests.
    - Log more information when the backtrace tests fail. Closes ticket
      17892. Patch from "cypherpunks."
    - More unit tests for compat_libevent.c, procmon.c, tortls.c,
      util_format.c, directory.c, and options_validate.c. Closes tickets
      17075, 17082, 17084, 17003, and 17076 respectively. Patches from
      Ola Bini.
    - Treat backtrace test failures as expected on FreeBSD until we
      solve bug 17808. Closes ticket 18204.
    - Unit tests for directory_handle_command_get. Closes ticket 17004.
      Patch from Reinaldo de Souza Jr.


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Changes in version 0.2.7.6 - 2015-12-10
  Tor version 0.2.7.6 fixes a major bug in entry guard selection, as
  well as a minor bug in hidden service reliability.

  o Major bugfixes (guard selection):
    - Actually look at the Guard flag when selecting a new directory
      guard. When we implemented the directory guard design, we
      accidentally started treating all relays as if they have the Guard
      flag during guard selection, leading to weaker anonymity and worse
      performance. Fixes bug 17772; bugfix on 0.2.4.8-alpha. Discovered
      by Mohsen Imani.

  o Minor features (geoip):
    - Update geoip and geoip6 to the December 1 2015 Maxmind GeoLite2
      Country database.

  o Minor bugfixes (compilation):
    - When checking for net/pfvar.h, include netinet/in.h if possible.
      This fixes transparent proxy detection on OpenBSD. Fixes bug
      17551; bugfix on 0.1.2.1-alpha. Patch from "rubiate".
    - Fix a compilation warning with Clang 3.6: Do not check the
      presence of an address which can never be NULL. Fixes bug 17781.

  o Minor bugfixes (correctness):
    - When displaying an IPv6 exit policy, include the mask bits
      correctly even when the number is greater than 31. Fixes bug
      16056; bugfix on 0.2.4.7-alpha. Patch from "gturner".
    - The wrong list was used when looking up expired intro points in a
      rend service object, causing what we think could be reachability
      issues for hidden services, and triggering a BUG log. Fixes bug
      16702; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.
    - Fix undefined behavior in the tor_cert_checksig function. Fixes
      bug 17722; bugfix on 0.2.7.2-alpha.


Changes in version 0.2.7.5 - 2015-11-20
  The Tor 0.2.7 release series is dedicated to the memory of Tor user
  and privacy advocate Caspar Bowden (1961-2015). Caspar worked
  tirelessly to advocate human rights regardless of national borders,
  and oppose the encroachments of mass surveillance. He opposed national
  exceptionalism, he brought clarity to legal and policy debates, he
  understood and predicted the impact of mass surveillance on the world,
  and he laid the groundwork for resisting it. While serving on the Tor
  Project's board of directors, he brought us his uncompromising focus
  on technical excellence in the service of humankind. Caspar was an
  inimitable force for good and a wonderful friend. He was kind,
  humorous, generous, gallant, and believed we should protect one
  another without exception. We honor him here for his ideals, his
  efforts, and his accomplishments. Please honor his memory with works
  that would make him proud.

  Tor 0.2.7.5 is the first stable release in the Tor 0.2.7 series.

  The 0.2.7 series adds a more secure identity key type for relays,
  improves cryptography performance, resolves several longstanding
  hidden-service performance issues, improves controller support for
  hidden services, and includes small bugfixes and performance
  improvements throughout the program. This release series also includes
  more tests than before, and significant simplifications to which parts
  of Tor invoke which others. For a full list of changes, see below.

  o New system requirements:
    - Tor no longer includes workarounds to support Libevent versions
      before 1.3e. Libevent 2.0 or later is recommended. Closes
      ticket 15248.
    - Tor no longer supports copies of OpenSSL that are missing support
      for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. (We began using ECC when
      available in 0.2.4.8-alpha, for more safe and efficient key
      negotiation.) In particular, support for at least one of P256 or
      P224 is now required, with manual configuration needed if only
      P224 is available. Resolves ticket 16140.
    - Tor no longer supports versions of OpenSSL before 1.0. (If you are
      on an operating system that has not upgraded to OpenSSL 1.0 or
      later, and you compile Tor from source, you will need to install a
      more recent OpenSSL to link Tor against.) These versions of
      OpenSSL are still supported by the OpenSSL, but the numerous
      cryptographic improvements in later OpenSSL releases makes them a
      clear choice. Resolves ticket 16034.

  o Major features (controller):
    - Add the ADD_ONION and DEL_ONION commands that allow the creation
      and management of hidden services via the controller. Closes
      ticket 6411.
    - New "GETINFO onions/current" and "GETINFO onions/detached"
      commands to get information about hidden services created via the
      controller. Part of ticket 6411.
    - New HSFETCH command to launch a request for a hidden service
      descriptor. Closes ticket 14847.
    - New HSPOST command to upload a hidden service descriptor. Closes
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      ticket 3523. Patch by Donncha.
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  o Major features (Ed25519 identity keys, Proposal 220):
    - Add support for offline encrypted Ed25519 master keys. To use this
      feature on your tor relay, run "tor --keygen" to make a new master
      key (or to make a new signing key if you already have a master
      key). Closes ticket 13642.
    - All relays now maintain a stronger identity key, using the Ed25519
      elliptic curve signature format. This master key is designed so
      that it can be kept offline. Relays also generate an online
      signing key, and a set of other Ed25519 keys and certificates.
      These are all automatically regenerated and rotated as needed.
      Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Directory authorities now vote on Ed25519 identity keys along with
      RSA1024 keys. Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Directory authorities track which Ed25519 identity keys have been
      used with which RSA1024 identity keys, and do not allow them to
      vary freely. Implements part of ticket 12498.
    - Microdescriptors now include Ed25519 identity keys. Implements
      part of ticket 12498.
    - Add a --newpass option to allow changing or removing the
      passphrase of an encrypted key with tor --keygen. Implements part
      of ticket 16769.
    - Add a new OfflineMasterKey option to tell Tor never to try loading
      or generating a secret Ed25519 identity key. You can use this in
      combination with tor --keygen to manage offline and/or encrypted
      Ed25519 keys. Implements ticket 16944.
    - On receiving a HUP signal, check to see whether the Ed25519
      signing key has changed, and reload it if so. Closes ticket 16790.
    - Significant usability improvements for Ed25519 key management. Log
      messages are better, and the code can recover from far more
      failure conditions. Thanks to "s7r" for reporting and diagnosing
      so many of these!

  o Major features (ECC performance):
    - Improve the runtime speed of Ed25519 signature verification by
      using Ed25519-donna's batch verification support. Implements
      ticket 16533.
    - Improve the speed of Ed25519 operations and Curve25519 keypair
      generation when built targeting 32 bit x86 platforms with SSE2
      available. Implements ticket 16535.
    - Improve the runtime speed of Ed25519 operations by using the
      public-domain Ed25519-donna by Andrew M. ("floodyberry").
      Implements ticket 16467.
    - Improve the runtime speed of the ntor handshake by using an
      optimized curve25519 basepoint scalarmult implementation from the
      public-domain Ed25519-donna by Andrew M. ("floodyberry"), based on
      ideas by Adam Langley. Implements ticket 9663.

  o Major features (Hidden services):
    - Hidden services, if using the EntryNodes option, are required to
      use more than one EntryNode, in order to avoid a guard discovery
      attack. (This would only affect people who had configured hidden
      services and manually specified the EntryNodes option with a
      single entry-node. The impact was that it would be easy to
      remotely identify the guard node used by such a hidden service.
      See ticket for more information.) Fixes ticket 14917.
    - Add the torrc option HiddenServiceNumIntroductionPoints, to
      specify a fixed number of introduction points. Its maximum value
      is 10 and default is 3. Using this option can increase a hidden
      service's reliability under load, at the cost of making it more
      visible that the hidden service is facing extra load. Closes
      ticket 4862.
    - Remove the adaptive algorithm for choosing the number of
      introduction points, which used to change the number of
      introduction points (poorly) depending on the number of
      connections the HS sees. Closes ticket 4862.

  o Major features (onion key cross-certification):
    - Relay descriptors now include signatures of their own identity
      keys, made using the TAP and ntor onion keys. These signatures
      allow relays to prove ownership of their own onion keys. Because
      of this change, microdescriptors will no longer need to include
      RSA identity keys. Implements proposal 228; closes ticket 12499.

  o Major bugfixes (client-side privacy, also in 0.2.6.9):
    - Properly separate out each SOCKSPort when applying stream
      isolation. The error occurred because each port's session group
      was being overwritten by a default value when the listener
      connection was initialized. Fixes bug 16247; bugfix on
      0.2.6.3-alpha. Patch by "jojelino".

  o Major bugfixes (hidden service clients, stability, also in 0.2.6.10):
    - Stop refusing to store updated hidden service descriptors on a
      client. This reverts commit 9407040c59218 (which indeed fixed bug
      14219, but introduced a major hidden service reachability
      regression detailed in bug 16381). This is a temporary fix since
      we can live with the minor issue in bug 14219 (it just results in
      some load on the network) but the regression of 16381 is too much
      of a setback. First-round fix for bug 16381; bugfix
      on 0.2.6.3-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (hidden services):
    - Revert commit that made directory authorities assign the HSDir
      flag to relay without a DirPort; this was bad because such relays
      can't handle BEGIN_DIR cells. Fixes bug 15850; bugfix
915
      on 0.2.6.3-alpha.
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    - When cannibalizing a circuit for an introduction point, always
      extend to the chosen exit node (creating a 4 hop circuit).
      Previously Tor would use the current circuit exit node, which
      changed the original choice of introduction point, and could cause
      the hidden service to skip excluded introduction points or
      reconnect to a skipped introduction point. Fixes bug 16260; bugfix
      on 0.1.0.1-rc.

  o Major bugfixes (memory leaks):
    - Fix a memory leak in ed25519 batch signature checking. Fixes bug
      17398; bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (open file limit):
    - The open file limit wasn't checked before calling
      tor_accept_socket_nonblocking(), which would make Tor exceed the
      limit. Now, before opening a new socket, Tor validates the open
      file limit just before, and if the max has been reached, return an
      error. Fixes bug 16288; bugfix on 0.1.1.1-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (security, correctness):
    - Fix an error that could cause us to read 4 bytes before the
      beginning of an openssl string. This bug could be used to cause
      Tor to crash on systems with unusual malloc implementations, or
      systems with unusual hardening installed. Fixes bug 17404; bugfix
      on 0.2.3.6-alpha.

  o Major bugfixes (stability, also in 0.2.6.10):
    - Stop crashing with an assertion failure when parsing certain kinds
      of malformed or truncated microdescriptors. Fixes bug 16400;
      bugfix on 0.2.6.1-alpha. Found by "torkeln"; fix based on a patch
      by "cypherpunks_backup".
    - Stop random client-side assertion failures that could occur when
      connecting to a busy hidden service, or connecting to a hidden
      service while a NEWNYM is in progress. Fixes bug 16013; bugfix
      on 0.1.0.1-rc.

  o Minor features (client, SOCKS):
    - Add GroupWritable and WorldWritable options to unix-socket based
      SocksPort and ControlPort options. These options apply to a single
      socket, and override {Control,Socks}SocketsGroupWritable. Closes
      ticket 15220.
    - Relax the validation done to hostnames in SOCKS5 requests, and
      allow a single trailing '.' to cope with clients that pass FQDNs
      using that syntax to explicitly indicate that the domain name is
      fully-qualified. Fixes bug 16674; bugfix on 0.2.6.2-alpha.
    - Relax the validation of hostnames in SOCKS5 requests, allowing the
      character '_' to appear, in order to cope with domains observed in
      the wild that are serving non-RFC compliant records. Resolves
      ticket 16430.

  o Minor features (client-side privacy):
    - New KeepAliveIsolateSOCKSAuth option to indefinitely extend circuit
      lifespan when IsolateSOCKSAuth and streams with SOCKS
      authentication are attached to the circuit. This allows
      applications like TorBrowser to manage circuit lifetime on their
      own. Implements feature 15482.
    - When logging malformed hostnames from SOCKS5 requests, respect
      SafeLogging configuration. Fixes bug 16891; bugfix on 0.1.1.16-rc.

  o Minor features (clock-jump tolerance):
    - Recover better when our clock jumps back many hours, like might
      happen for Tails or Whonix users who start with a very wrong
      hardware clock, use Tor to discover a more accurate time, and then
      fix their clock. Resolves part of ticket 8766.

  o Minor features (command-line interface):
    - Make --hash-password imply --hush to prevent unnecessary noise.
      Closes ticket 15542. Patch from "cypherpunks".
    - Print a warning whenever we find a relative file path being used
      as torrc option. Resolves issue 14018.

  o Minor features (compilation):
    - Give a warning as early as possible when trying to build with an
      unsupported OpenSSL version. Closes ticket 16901.
    - Use C99 variadic macros when the compiler is not GCC. This avoids
      failing compilations on MSVC, and fixes a log-file-based race
      condition in our old workarounds. Original patch from Gisle Vanem.

  o Minor features (control protocol):
    - Support network-liveness GETINFO key and NETWORK_LIVENESS event in
      the control protocol. Resolves ticket 15358.

  o Minor features (controller):
    - Add DirAuthority lines for default directory authorities to the
      output of the "GETINFO config/defaults" command if not already
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